Neuropsychological and socioeconomic outcomes in adult survivors of pediatric low-grade glioma.Cancer 2019; 125(17):3050-3058C
Current estimates suggest that 75% of children diagnosed with a central nervous system (CNS) tumor will become 5-year survivors. However, survivors of childhood CNS tumors are at increased risk for long-term morbidity.
To determine long-term neuropsychological and socioeconomic status (SES) outcomes, adult survivors of pediatric low-grade gliomas (n = 181) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and a sibling comparison group that was frequency-matched by age and sex (n = 105) completed a comprehensive battery of standardized neuropsychological tests and an SES assessment. Multivariable regression models compared treatment-specific groups for neuropsychological and SES outcomes and evaluated associations with tumor location, age at diagnosis, sex, and age at evaluation.
In adjusted models, survivors treated with surgery and radiotherapy (surgery+RT; median age at diagnosis, 7 years; median age at assessment, 41 years) scored lower on estimated IQ than survivors treated with surgery only, who scored lower than siblings (surgery+RT, 93.9; surgery only, 101.2; siblings, 108.5; all P values <.0001). Survivors diagnosed at younger ages had low scores for all outcomes (P < .05) except for attention/processing speed. For SES outcomes, survivors treated with surgery+RT had lower occupation scores (odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-5.9), lower income (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0), and less education (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.0) than those treated with surgery only.
Decades after treatment, survivors treated with radiotherapy and at younger ages had poorer neuropsychological and SES outcomes. Lifelong surveillance of survivors of pediatric low-grade gliomas may be warranted as life events, stages, and transitions (employment, family, and aging) present new challenges and risks.