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Monozygotic multiple pregnancies after transfer of single in vitro produced equine embryos.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Monozygotic multiple pregnancy is rare in horses, but may be more common after transfer of an in vitro produced (IVP) embryo.

OBJECTIVES

To determine the occurrence, incidence, characteristics and outcome of monozygotic siblings arising from in vivo and IVP equine embryos.

STUDY DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

METHODS

A total of 496 fresh in vivo and 410 frozen-thawed IVP blastocysts, produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of in vitro matured oocytes from Warmblood mares, were transferred into recipient mares. The likelihoods of pregnancy and multiple pregnancy were calculated, and the clinical features and outcome of any multiple pregnancy were recorded.

RESULTS

The likelihood of pregnancy after transfer of a single IVP or in vivo embryo was 62% (254/410) and 83% (413/496), respectively. The incidence of multiple pregnancy was 1.6% (4/254) and 0% (0/413) for IVP and in vivo blastocysts, respectively. More specifically, three IVP blastocysts yielded twin embryo propers/foetuses, and one IVP conceptus developed three distinct embryonic bodies. Interestingly, only one embryonic vesicle was detected at all ultrasonographic examinations prior to embryo proper development. Multiple embryonic bodies only became apparent at later scans to check for an embryo proper and heartbeat, or when the recipient mare aborted. Two twin pregnancies aborted spontaneously at 3 and 9 months, respectively, while the heart beat was lost from all three embryos in the triplet pregnancy before day 35 of gestation. Twin reduction by per rectum compression of one fetal thorax was attempted at day 50 of gestation in the fourth case; however, both foetuses were lost.

MAIN LIMITATIONS

Small number of cases.

CONCLUSIONS

In vitro embryo production resulted in a higher incidence of multiple monozygotic pregnancy, which could only be diagnosed after development of the embryo proper and is likely to result in pregnancy loss later in gestation if left untreated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

    ,

    Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

    ,

    Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

    Department of Equine Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

    Source

    Equine veterinary journal : 2019 Jun 24 pg

    Pub Type(s)

    Case Reports

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    31232484

    Citation

    Dijkstra, A, et al. "Monozygotic Multiple Pregnancies After Transfer of Single in Vitro Produced Equine Embryos." Equine Veterinary Journal, 2019.
    Dijkstra A, Cuervo-Arango J, Stout TAE, et al. Monozygotic multiple pregnancies after transfer of single in vitro produced equine embryos. Equine Vet J. 2019.
    Dijkstra, A., Cuervo-Arango, J., Stout, T. A. E., & Claes, A. (2019). Monozygotic multiple pregnancies after transfer of single in vitro produced equine embryos. Equine Veterinary Journal, doi:10.1111/evj.13146.
    Dijkstra A, et al. Monozygotic Multiple Pregnancies After Transfer of Single in Vitro Produced Equine Embryos. Equine Vet J. 2019 Jun 24; PubMed PMID: 31232484.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Monozygotic multiple pregnancies after transfer of single in vitro produced equine embryos. AU - Dijkstra,A, AU - Cuervo-Arango,J, AU - Stout,T A E, AU - Claes,A, Y1 - 2019/06/24/ PY - 2019/6/25/entrez KW - horse KW - in vitro embryo production KW - intracytoplasmic sperm injection KW - monozygotic KW - triplets KW - twins JF - Equine veterinary journal JO - Equine Vet. J. N2 - BACKGROUND: Monozygotic multiple pregnancy is rare in horses, but may be more common after transfer of an in vitro produced (IVP) embryo. OBJECTIVES: To determine the occurrence, incidence, characteristics and outcome of monozygotic siblings arising from in vivo and IVP equine embryos. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A total of 496 fresh in vivo and 410 frozen-thawed IVP blastocysts, produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of in vitro matured oocytes from Warmblood mares, were transferred into recipient mares. The likelihoods of pregnancy and multiple pregnancy were calculated, and the clinical features and outcome of any multiple pregnancy were recorded. RESULTS: The likelihood of pregnancy after transfer of a single IVP or in vivo embryo was 62% (254/410) and 83% (413/496), respectively. The incidence of multiple pregnancy was 1.6% (4/254) and 0% (0/413) for IVP and in vivo blastocysts, respectively. More specifically, three IVP blastocysts yielded twin embryo propers/foetuses, and one IVP conceptus developed three distinct embryonic bodies. Interestingly, only one embryonic vesicle was detected at all ultrasonographic examinations prior to embryo proper development. Multiple embryonic bodies only became apparent at later scans to check for an embryo proper and heartbeat, or when the recipient mare aborted. Two twin pregnancies aborted spontaneously at 3 and 9 months, respectively, while the heart beat was lost from all three embryos in the triplet pregnancy before day 35 of gestation. Twin reduction by per rectum compression of one fetal thorax was attempted at day 50 of gestation in the fourth case; however, both foetuses were lost. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Small number of cases. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro embryo production resulted in a higher incidence of multiple monozygotic pregnancy, which could only be diagnosed after development of the embryo proper and is likely to result in pregnancy loss later in gestation if left untreated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. SN - 2042-3306 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31232484/Monozygotic_multiple_pregnancies_after_transfer_of_single_in_vitro_produced_equine_embryos L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.13146 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -