Clinical and Radiographic Predictors for Unsalvageable Labral Tear at the Time of Initial Hip Arthroscopic Management for Femoroacetabular Impingement.Am J Sports Med 2019; 47(9):2029-2037AJ
The acetabular labrum plays important roles in proprioception, nociception, synovial fluid seal effect, and static and dynamic joint stability and as a shock absorber. Clinical and radiographic risk factors for unsalvageable labral tear in femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) are not well established.
To identify predictors of unsalvageable labral tear during initial hip arthroscopic management of FAI.
Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.
Patients were included who underwent primary hip arthroscopic treatment for FAI between March 2009 and March 2014. Patients were excluded who had <2-year follow-up, underwent bilateral surgery, or had a history of surgery, osteoarthritis (Tönnis grade 2 or 3), and other diagnoses, including lateral center-edge angle <25° diagnosed as developmental hip dysplasia. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their labral condition: reconstruction and refixation. Unsalvageable labral tear was defined as any irreparable labral tear, including severe degenerative tear, frayed labrum, labral ossification, flattened labrum, and failed prior repair during surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified risk factors for segmental labral reconstruction. Patient-reported outcome scores and postoperative revision rates were also assessed.
Twenty-five hips (18 male, 7 female) and 126 hips (65 male, 61 female) were included in the reconstruction and refixation groups, respectively. The mean ± SD ages were 52.6 ± 15.0 and 36.5 ± 16.1 years in the reconstruction and refixation groups, respectively. In the reconstruction group, the mean modified Harris Hip Score significantly improved from 67.3 ± 14.9 preoperatively to 95.0 ± 8.1 at final follow-up (P < .001), and the mean Nonarthritic Hip Score improved from 63.0 ± 18.3 preoperatively to 89.5 ± 10.1 at final follow-up (P < .001). In the refixation group, the mean modified Harris Hip Score significantly improved from 69.2 ± 18.6 preoperatively to 93.0 ± 11.2 at final follow-up (P < .001), and the mean Nonarthritic Hip Score improved from 60.7 ± 18.8 preoperatively to 88.6 ± 15.0 at final follow-up (P < .001). No significant difference was noted in patient-reported outcome scores and revision hip arthroscopy rates. The rate of conversion of total hip arthroplasty was higher in the reconstruction group than in the refixation group. Risk factors for unsalvageable labral tear were age ≥45 years (odds ratio [OR], 8.83; P < .007), body mass index ≥23.1 kg/m2 (OR, 13.05; P < .001), and vertical center anterior angle ≥36° (OR, 19.03; P < .001). Furthermore, in this study, unsalvageable labral tears were present in cases with at least 2 of the 3 risk factors.
Age ≥45 years, body mass index ≥23.1 kg/m2, and vertical center anterior angle ≥36° are risk factors for unsalvageable labral tear at initial hip arthroscopic surgery for patients with FAI.