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Genetic characteristics of pathogenic Leptospira in wild small animals and livestock in Jiangxi Province, China, 2002-2015.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019; 13(6):e0007513PN

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical bacterial diseases worldwide. However, there is limited information on the genetic diversity and host selectivity of pathogenic Leptospira in wild small mammal populations.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS

Jiangxi Province, located in southern China, is a region highly endemic for leptospirosis. In this study, among a total of 3,531 trapped rodents dominated by Apodemus agrarius (59.7%), 330 Leptospira strains were successfully isolated from six different sites in Jiangxi between 2002 and 2015. Adding 71 local strains from humans, various kinds of livestock and wild animals in Jiangxi, a total of 401 epidemic strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene senquencing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Among them, the most prevalent serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae (61.10%), followed by Javanica (19.20%) and Australis (9.73%); the remaining five serogroups, Canicola, Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Hebdomadis and Pomona, accounted for 9.97%. Species identification revealed that 325 were L. interrogans and 76 were L. borgpetersenii. Moreover, L. interrogans was the only pathogenic species in Fuliang and Shanggao and was predominant in Shangrao (95.0%); L. borgpetersenii was the most common in the remaining three sites. Twenty-one sequence types (STs) were identified. Similarly, ST1 and serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae were most prevalent in Shangrao (86.0% and 86.4%) and Fuliang (90.4% and 90.4%), ST143 and serogroup Javanica in Shangyou (88.5% and 90.4%) and Longnan (73.1% and 73.1%), and ST105 and serogroup Australis in Shanggao (46.3% and 56.1%). Serogroup Icterohaemorhagiae primarily linked to A. agrarius (86.9%), serogroup Canicola to dogs (83.3%). There were significant differences in the distribution of leptospiral species/serogroups/STs prevalence across host species/collected locations among the 394 animal-associated strains (Fisher's exact test, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE

Our study demonstrated high genetic diversity of pathogenic Leptospira strains from wild small animals in Jiangxi from 2002 to 2015. A. agrarius was the most abundantly trapped animal reservoir, and serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and ST1 were the most dominant in Jiangxi. Significant geographic variation and host diversity in the distribution of dominant species, STs and serogroups were observed. Moreover, rat-to-human transmission might play a crucial role in the circulation of Leptospirosis in Jiangxi. Details of the serological and molecular characteristics circulating in this region will be essential in implementing prevention and intervention measures to reduce the risk of disease transmission in China. However, phylogenetic analysis of more Leptospira isolates should explore the impact of ecological change on leptospirosis transmission dynamics and investigate how such new knowledge might better impact environmental monitoring for disease control and prevention at a public health level.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People' Republic of China. Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.JiangXi Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.Southwest university, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People' Republic of China. Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People' Republic of China. Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People' Republic of China. Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.GuiZhou Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guiyang, People's Republic of China.Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People' Republic of China. Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31233503

Citation

Zhang, Cuicai, et al. "Genetic Characteristics of Pathogenic Leptospira in Wild Small Animals and Livestock in Jiangxi Province, China, 2002-2015." PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 13, no. 6, 2019, pp. e0007513.
Zhang C, Xu J, Zhang T, et al. Genetic characteristics of pathogenic Leptospira in wild small animals and livestock in Jiangxi Province, China, 2002-2015. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(6):e0007513.
Zhang, C., Xu, J., Zhang, T., Qiu, H., Li, Z., Zhang, E., ... Zhu, Y. (2019). Genetic characteristics of pathogenic Leptospira in wild small animals and livestock in Jiangxi Province, China, 2002-2015. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 13(6), pp. e0007513. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0007513.
Zhang C, et al. Genetic Characteristics of Pathogenic Leptospira in Wild Small Animals and Livestock in Jiangxi Province, China, 2002-2015. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(6):e0007513. PubMed PMID: 31233503.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic characteristics of pathogenic Leptospira in wild small animals and livestock in Jiangxi Province, China, 2002-2015. AU - Zhang,Cuicai, AU - Xu,Jianmin, AU - Zhang,Tinglan, AU - Qiu,Haiyan, AU - Li,Zhenpeng, AU - Zhang,Enmin, AU - Li,Shijun, AU - Chang,Yung-Fu, AU - Guo,Xiaokui, AU - Jiang,Xiugao, AU - Zhu,Yongzhang, Y1 - 2019/06/24/ PY - 2019/03/04/received PY - 2019/06/03/accepted PY - 2019/07/05/revised PY - 2019/6/25/pubmed PY - 2019/11/27/medline PY - 2019/6/25/entrez SP - e0007513 EP - e0007513 JF - PLoS neglected tropical diseases JO - PLoS Negl Trop Dis VL - 13 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical bacterial diseases worldwide. However, there is limited information on the genetic diversity and host selectivity of pathogenic Leptospira in wild small mammal populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Jiangxi Province, located in southern China, is a region highly endemic for leptospirosis. In this study, among a total of 3,531 trapped rodents dominated by Apodemus agrarius (59.7%), 330 Leptospira strains were successfully isolated from six different sites in Jiangxi between 2002 and 2015. Adding 71 local strains from humans, various kinds of livestock and wild animals in Jiangxi, a total of 401 epidemic strains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene senquencing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Among them, the most prevalent serogroup was Icterohaemorrhagiae (61.10%), followed by Javanica (19.20%) and Australis (9.73%); the remaining five serogroups, Canicola, Autumnalis, Grippotyphosa, Hebdomadis and Pomona, accounted for 9.97%. Species identification revealed that 325 were L. interrogans and 76 were L. borgpetersenii. Moreover, L. interrogans was the only pathogenic species in Fuliang and Shanggao and was predominant in Shangrao (95.0%); L. borgpetersenii was the most common in the remaining three sites. Twenty-one sequence types (STs) were identified. Similarly, ST1 and serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae were most prevalent in Shangrao (86.0% and 86.4%) and Fuliang (90.4% and 90.4%), ST143 and serogroup Javanica in Shangyou (88.5% and 90.4%) and Longnan (73.1% and 73.1%), and ST105 and serogroup Australis in Shanggao (46.3% and 56.1%). Serogroup Icterohaemorhagiae primarily linked to A. agrarius (86.9%), serogroup Canicola to dogs (83.3%). There were significant differences in the distribution of leptospiral species/serogroups/STs prevalence across host species/collected locations among the 394 animal-associated strains (Fisher's exact test, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated high genetic diversity of pathogenic Leptospira strains from wild small animals in Jiangxi from 2002 to 2015. A. agrarius was the most abundantly trapped animal reservoir, and serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and ST1 were the most dominant in Jiangxi. Significant geographic variation and host diversity in the distribution of dominant species, STs and serogroups were observed. Moreover, rat-to-human transmission might play a crucial role in the circulation of Leptospirosis in Jiangxi. Details of the serological and molecular characteristics circulating in this region will be essential in implementing prevention and intervention measures to reduce the risk of disease transmission in China. However, phylogenetic analysis of more Leptospira isolates should explore the impact of ecological change on leptospirosis transmission dynamics and investigate how such new knowledge might better impact environmental monitoring for disease control and prevention at a public health level. SN - 1935-2735 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31233503/Genetic_characteristics_of_pathogenic_Leptospira_in_wild_small_animals_and_livestock_in_Jiangxi_Province_China_2002_2015_ L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007513 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -