Ethanol Extract of Illicium henryi Attenuates LPS-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice via Regulating Inflammation and Oxidative Stress.Nutrients. 2019 Jun 23; 11(6)N
The root bark of Illicium henryi has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases. Its ethanol extract (EEIH) was found to contain a large number of phenols and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. The present study aimed to investigate its protective effect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with EEIH for five days, and then LPS injection was applied to induce AKI. Blood samples and kidney tissues were collected and used for histopathology, biochemical assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analyses. EEIH not only significantly dose-dependently attenuated histological damage and reduced renal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (from 9.77 ± 0.73 to 0.84 ± 0.30 U/g tissue) but also decreased serum creatinine (from 55.60 ± 2.70 to 27.20 ± 2.39 µmol/L) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (from 29.95 ± 1.96 to 16.12 ± 1.24 mmol/L) levels in LPS-treated mice. EEIH also markedly dose-dependently inhibited mRNA expression and production of TNF-α (from 140.40 ± 5.15 to 84.74 ± 5.65 pg/mg), IL-1β (from 135.54 ± 8.20 to 77.15 ± 5.34 pg/mg), IL-6 (from 168.74 ± 7.23 to 119.16 ± 9.35 pg/mg), and COX-2 in renal tissue of LPS-treated mice via downregulating mRNA and protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65. Moreover, EEIH significantly dose-dependently reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) (from 5.43 ± 0.43 to 2.80 ± 0.25 nmol/mg prot) and NO (from 1.01 ± 0.05 to 0.24 ± 0.05 µmol/g prot) levels and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) (from 22.32 ± 2.92 to 47.59 ± 3.79 U/mg prot) and glutathione (GSH) (from 6.57 ± 0.53 to 16.89 ± 0.68 µmol/g prot) levels in renal tissue induced by LPS through upregulating mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, EEIH inhibited LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from RAW264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that EEIH has protective effects against AKI in mice through regulating inflammation and oxidative stress.