Stabilization of Black Rice (Oryza Sativa, L. Indica) Anthocyanins Using Plant Extracts for Copigmentation and Maltodextrin for Encapsulation.J Food Sci. 2019 Jul; 84(7):1712-1720.JF
Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) is one of the cereal commodities considered to be a source of anthocyanin. One of the obstacles of using anthocyanins as natural food colorants is their low stability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of natural plants extracts on anthocyanin copigmentation and to study the stability of the encapsulated copigmented anthocyanin during storage under different temperatures and light exposure. Dried bilimbi leaves (BL) and sow thistle leaves (STL) were extracted using ethanol to obtain the crude flavonoid extract that was subsequently purified using solid phase extraction. Both crude (CBL, CSTL) and purified (PBL, PSTL) extract were used as copigment agents with the molar ratio of 1:0.1 to 1:10 at pH 1 and pH 3. The copigmentation effect was evaluated by measuring the wavelength and absorbance shifts at wavelengths of 500 to 600 nm. The stability of the dried anthocyanin powder was evaluated under different temperatures and light exposure for up to 4 weeks. Anthocyanin was successfully copigmented with BL and STL extracts showing a wavelength shift and absorbance increase at pH 1 and pH 3. Purification of BL enhanced the hyperchromic effect more than that of the crude form, in contrast to the STL. Meanwhile, the retention of absorbance (%) for encapsulated copigmented anthocyanin samples was within 74% to 83% at the end of the storage period. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Natural food pigment such as anthocyanin obtained from plant extract usually shows very limited stability under various processing conditions. This study shows that color stability of anthocyanin extracted from black rice can be improved by copigmentation with flavonoids extracted from particular plants. Encapsulation of the copigmented anthocyanin could further enhance its color stability. The availability of encapsulated and copigmented anthocyanins with improved color stability is expected to provide more alternatives for especially the beverage industry to choose suitable natural colorant for their products.