Composition of Anthocyanins and Proanthocyanidins in Three Tropical Vaccinium Species from Costa Rica.J Agric Food Chem 2019JA
Total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), and proanthocyanidin (PAC) content were determined in fruit from three tropical Vaccinium species (Vaccinium consanguineum, Vaccinium floribundum, and Vaccinium poasanum) from Costa Rica sampled at three stages of fruit development. Results show that TAC increased as the fruit developed, while TPC, TFC, and PAC content decreased. Anthocyanin profiles were evaluated using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Cyanidin and delphinidin glycosides were the predominant anthocyanins for the three tropical Vaccinium species. Proanthocyanidins were characterized using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The presence of procyanidin structures with B-type interflavan bonds were observed, but deconvolution of mass spectrometry isotope patterns indicated that PACs with one or more A-type interflavan bonds accounted for more than 74% of the oligomers at each degree of polymerization.