Overview of the Mutational Landscape in Primary Myelofibrosis and Advances in Novel Therapeutics.Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019 06 01; 20(6):1691-1699.AP
Primary Myelofibrosis is a BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasm with a variety of hematological presentations, including thrombosis, bleeding diathesis and marrow fibrosis. It is estimated to have an incidence of 1.5 per 100,000 people each year. Although JAK2 or MPL mutations are seen in PMF, several other mutations have recently been documented, including mutations in CALR, epigenetic regulators like TET, ASXL1, and 13q deletions. The identification of these mutations has improved the ability to develop novel treatment options. These include JAK inhibitors like ruxolitinib, heat shock protein-90 inhibitors like ganetespib, histone deacetylase inhibitors including panobinostat, pracinostat, vorinostat and givinostat, hypomethylating agents like decitabine, hedgehog inhibitors like glasdegib, PI3K, AKT and mTOR inhibitors like everolimus as well as telomerase inhibitors like imtelstat. Research on novel therapeutic options is being actively pursued in order to expand treatment options for primary myelofibrosis however currently, there is no curative therapy other than allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) which is possible in select patients.