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Daily Snacking Occasions, Snack Size, and Snack Energy Density as Predictors of Diet Quality among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years.
Nutrients. 2019 Jun 26; 11(7)N

Abstract

Whether snacks help young children meet nutritional needs or merely contribute to excessive intakes is debated. This research evaluated associations of snacking with dietary quality among US preschoolers (two to five years, n = 4217) in the 2005-2016 National Health Examination Survey (NHANES). Snacking occasions, size, and energy density (ED) were estimated from two 24-hr dietary recalls. Diet quality indices included the 2015 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015, 0-100), the mean adequacy ratio (MAR, 0-100) for five shortfall nutrients (vitamin D, calcium, fiber, potassium, and iron), and the mean % of recommended limits for added sugars, saturated fat, and sodium. Linear regressions included snacking parameters, demographics, and dietary reporting accuracy. Children had a mean HEI-2015 of 53.0, a MAR of 67.7, and intake of 121.4% of nutrients to limit. Daily snacking occasions were positively associated with HEI-2015 scores, whereas mean snack size and ED were negatively associated with HEI-2015 and MAR scores (all p < 0.05). Snack ED was positively associated with daily intakes of added sugar, saturated fat, and sodium (p < 0.001). These nationally representative findings reveal that more frequent, smaller, and less energy-dense snacks are associated with higher diet quality among US preschoolers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Obesity Research and Education, College of Public Health, Temple University, 3223 N. Broad Street, Suite 175, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.Department of Nutrition Science, College of Health and Human Services, Purdue University, 700 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, 016 Carpenter Sports Building, Newark, DE 19716, USA.Center for Obesity Research and Education, College of Public Health, Temple University, 3223 N. Broad Street, Suite 175, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Center for Obesity Research and Education, College of Public Health, Temple University, 3223 N. Broad Street, Suite 175, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. jofisher@temple.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31247959

Citation

Kachurak, Alexandria, et al. "Daily Snacking Occasions, Snack Size, and Snack Energy Density as Predictors of Diet Quality Among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years." Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 7, 2019.
Kachurak A, Bailey RL, Davey A, et al. Daily Snacking Occasions, Snack Size, and Snack Energy Density as Predictors of Diet Quality among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years. Nutrients. 2019;11(7).
Kachurak, A., Bailey, R. L., Davey, A., Dabritz, L., & Fisher, J. O. (2019). Daily Snacking Occasions, Snack Size, and Snack Energy Density as Predictors of Diet Quality among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years. Nutrients, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071440
Kachurak A, et al. Daily Snacking Occasions, Snack Size, and Snack Energy Density as Predictors of Diet Quality Among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years. Nutrients. 2019 Jun 26;11(7) PubMed PMID: 31247959.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Daily Snacking Occasions, Snack Size, and Snack Energy Density as Predictors of Diet Quality among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years. AU - Kachurak,Alexandria, AU - Bailey,Regan L, AU - Davey,Adam, AU - Dabritz,Lauren, AU - Fisher,Jennifer Orlet, Y1 - 2019/06/26/ PY - 2019/05/28/received PY - 2019/06/18/revised PY - 2019/06/20/accepted PY - 2019/6/29/entrez PY - 2019/6/30/pubmed PY - 2020/1/8/medline KW - added sugar KW - children KW - diet quality KW - healthy eating index KW - mean adequacy ratio KW - preschool KW - saturated fat KW - shortfall nutrients KW - snacking KW - sodium JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 11 IS - 7 N2 - Whether snacks help young children meet nutritional needs or merely contribute to excessive intakes is debated. This research evaluated associations of snacking with dietary quality among US preschoolers (two to five years, n = 4217) in the 2005-2016 National Health Examination Survey (NHANES). Snacking occasions, size, and energy density (ED) were estimated from two 24-hr dietary recalls. Diet quality indices included the 2015 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2015, 0-100), the mean adequacy ratio (MAR, 0-100) for five shortfall nutrients (vitamin D, calcium, fiber, potassium, and iron), and the mean % of recommended limits for added sugars, saturated fat, and sodium. Linear regressions included snacking parameters, demographics, and dietary reporting accuracy. Children had a mean HEI-2015 of 53.0, a MAR of 67.7, and intake of 121.4% of nutrients to limit. Daily snacking occasions were positively associated with HEI-2015 scores, whereas mean snack size and ED were negatively associated with HEI-2015 and MAR scores (all p < 0.05). Snack ED was positively associated with daily intakes of added sugar, saturated fat, and sodium (p < 0.001). These nationally representative findings reveal that more frequent, smaller, and less energy-dense snacks are associated with higher diet quality among US preschoolers. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31247959/Daily_Snacking_Occasions_Snack_Size_and_Snack_Energy_Density_as_Predictors_of_Diet_Quality_among_US_Children_Aged_2_to_5_Years_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu11071440 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -