Six Weeks of Calorie Restriction Improves Body Composition and Lipid Profile in Obese and Overweight Former Athletes.Nutrients. 2019 Jun 27; 11(7)N
The aim of the study was to compare the impact of 6 weeks of reducing daily caloric intake by 20% of total daily energy expenditure (TDEE)-CRI vs. reducing daily caloric intake by 30% of TDEE-CRII on body mass reduction and insulin metabolism in former athletes.
94 males aged 35.7 ± 5.3 years, height 180.5 ± 4.1 cm, and body mass 96.82 ± 6.2 kg were randomly assigned to the CRI (n = 49) or CRII (n = 45) group. Thirty-one participants (18 subjects from CRI and 13 from CRII) resigned from the study. The effects of both diets on the body composition variables (body mass-BM; body fat-BF; fat free mass-FFM; muscle mass-MM; total body water-TBW), lipid profile (total lipids-TL; total cholesterol-TCh; HDL cholesterol-HDL; LDL cholesterol-LDL; triglycerides-TG), and glucose control variables (glucose-GL, insulin-I, HOMA-IR, insulin-like growth factor-1-IGF-1, leptin and adiponectin) were measured.
After adhering to the CR I diet, significant differences were observed in FFM, MM and TG. After adhering to the CR II diet, significant differences were registered in tCh, TL and LDL. Both diets had a significant influence on leptin and adiponectin concentrations. Significant differences in FFM, MM, and tCh were observed between the CR I and CR II groups. At the end of the dietary intervention, significant differences in BF, FFM, MM and TBW were observed between the CR I and CR II groups.
The 6 weeks of CR II diet appeared to be more effective in reducing BF and lipid profile and proved to be especially suitable for subjects with high body fat content and an elevated level of lipoproteins and cholesterol. Both reductive diets were effective in improving the levels of leptin and adiponectin in obese former athletes.