Formation of iodinated trihalomethanes and noniodinated disinfection byproducts during chloramination of algal organic matter extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa.Water Res. 2019 Oct 01; 162:115-126.WR
The increasing occurrence of harmful algal blooms in surface waters may increase the input of algal organic matter (AOM) to the dissolved organic matter pool. The formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) and noniodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in synthetic waters containing AOM extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated in chloramination (preformed and in-situ formed chloramine, NH2Cl and Cl2-NH2Cl, respectively) and chlorination (Cl2) processes. AOM is much more favorable for iodine incorporation than natural organic matter (NOM). For example, the formation of I-THM from AOM is much higher than NOM isolate extracted from treated water (e.g., 3.5 times higher in the NH2Cl process), and thus higher iodine utilization and substitution factors from AOM were observed. Short contact time (2 min) chlorination in Cl2-NH2Cl process leading to the formation of halogenated intermediates favored I-THM formation, compared with NH2Cl process. However, further increasing chlorine contact time from 5 min to 24 h facilitated the conversion from iodide to iodate and thus I-THM formation decreased. Meanwhile, the formation of noniodinated THM4, haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloacetaldehydes (HALs) increased. Factors including concentrations of AOM and bromide, pH, and chlorine/nitrogen ratios influenced the formation of I-THMs and noniodinated DBPs. To evaluate the benefit of mitigating I-THM formation over the risk of noniodinated DBP formation, measured DBPs were weighed against their mammalian cell toxicity indexes. Increasing the chlorine exposure increased the calculated cytotoxicity based on concentrations of measured I-THMs and noniodinated DBPs since unregulated HANs and HALs were the controlling agents.