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Nonopioid Overdose Death Rates Rose Almost As Fast As Those Involving Opioids, 1999-2016.
Health Aff (Millwood). 2019 07; 38(7):1216-1224.HA

Abstract

The number of Americans dying from drug overdoses has risen rapidly, but the contribution of nonopioid drugs to this growth is not well understood. Using vital statistics data from the universe of deaths among US residents in the period 1999-2016, I calculated levels of and increases in overall nonopioid fatal overdose rates and those for subgroups stratified by manner of death, sex, race/ethnicity, and age. Mortality rates were also calculated separately for sedatives, stimulants, antidepressants, and cocaine. Recently developed methods were used to correct for the incomplete reporting of drug involvement on death certificates. From 1999 to 2016 the number of nonopioid drug deaths rose 274 percent, and deaths per 100,000 population rose by 223 percent. Over the same period, opioid-involved fatality counts and rates grew by 371 percent and 307 percent, respectively. Fatal overdose rates involving stimulants increased more than tenfold, with slower growth but higher rates for deaths involving sedatives and cocaine. Midlife non-Hispanic whites generally experienced the highest levels and rise in nonopioid death rates, but cocaine fatality rates were particularly common among nonwhite or Hispanic males ages 40-59. Policies designed to curb the opioid epidemic are probably helpful in reducing nonopioid deaths, but targeted interventions may also be needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Christopher J. Ruhm (ruhm@virginia.edu) is a professor of public policy and economics in the Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, University of Virginia, in Charlottesville.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31260365

Citation

Ruhm, Christopher J.. "Nonopioid Overdose Death Rates Rose Almost as Fast as Those Involving Opioids, 1999-2016." Health Affairs (Project Hope), vol. 38, no. 7, 2019, pp. 1216-1224.
Ruhm CJ. Nonopioid Overdose Death Rates Rose Almost As Fast As Those Involving Opioids, 1999-2016. Health Aff (Millwood). 2019;38(7):1216-1224.
Ruhm, C. J. (2019). Nonopioid Overdose Death Rates Rose Almost As Fast As Those Involving Opioids, 1999-2016. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 38(7), 1216-1224. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05522
Ruhm CJ. Nonopioid Overdose Death Rates Rose Almost as Fast as Those Involving Opioids, 1999-2016. Health Aff (Millwood). 2019;38(7):1216-1224. PubMed PMID: 31260365.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nonopioid Overdose Death Rates Rose Almost As Fast As Those Involving Opioids, 1999-2016. A1 - Ruhm,Christopher J, PY - 2019/7/2/entrez PY - 2019/7/2/pubmed PY - 2020/10/9/medline KW - drug fatalities KW - drug mortality KW - fatal overdoses KW - nonopioid deaths KW - overdose death rates SP - 1216 EP - 1224 JF - Health affairs (Project Hope) JO - Health Aff (Millwood) VL - 38 IS - 7 N2 - The number of Americans dying from drug overdoses has risen rapidly, but the contribution of nonopioid drugs to this growth is not well understood. Using vital statistics data from the universe of deaths among US residents in the period 1999-2016, I calculated levels of and increases in overall nonopioid fatal overdose rates and those for subgroups stratified by manner of death, sex, race/ethnicity, and age. Mortality rates were also calculated separately for sedatives, stimulants, antidepressants, and cocaine. Recently developed methods were used to correct for the incomplete reporting of drug involvement on death certificates. From 1999 to 2016 the number of nonopioid drug deaths rose 274 percent, and deaths per 100,000 population rose by 223 percent. Over the same period, opioid-involved fatality counts and rates grew by 371 percent and 307 percent, respectively. Fatal overdose rates involving stimulants increased more than tenfold, with slower growth but higher rates for deaths involving sedatives and cocaine. Midlife non-Hispanic whites generally experienced the highest levels and rise in nonopioid death rates, but cocaine fatality rates were particularly common among nonwhite or Hispanic males ages 40-59. Policies designed to curb the opioid epidemic are probably helpful in reducing nonopioid deaths, but targeted interventions may also be needed. SN - 1544-5208 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31260365/Nonopioid_Overdose_Death_Rates_Rose_Almost_As_Fast_As_Those_Involving_Opioids_1999_2016_ L2 - https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05522?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -