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In vitro antimicrobial effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea against six pathogens with dermatological relevance and its phytochemical characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Oct 05; 242:112048.JE

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

Hypoxis hemerocallidea (commonly known as African Potato) is popular in African traditional medicine. It is used in the management of diverse ailments including burns, wounds and skin-related diseases.

AIM OF THE STUDY

The current study investigated the antimicrobial effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea against six microorganisms associated with skin diseases. In addition, the antioxidant activity, phytochemical profiles and cytotoxicity of the bulb extracts were evaluated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The antimicrobial activity of 50% methanol (MeOH) and petroleum ether (PE) extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea bulbs was tested against two bacterial and four fungal strains implicated in causing opportunistic skin-related diseases. Antioxidant potential of the extract was investigated via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene linoleic acid model. Phytochemical profiling of the 50% MeOH extract of Hypoxis hemerocallidea was done using spectrophotometric assay and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The extracts were also evaluated for cytotoxicity against African green monkey Vero kidney cell lines based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay.

RESULTS

Both 50% MeOH and PE extracts showed considerable inhibitory effects against all six microorganisms. The extracts were potent against Shigella flexneri and Trichophyton tonsurans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values less than 1 mg/ml. However, there was relatively poor antifungal activity against the other fungal strains. In the DPPH assay, the MeOH extract of the bulb had an EC50 of 29.8 μg/ml while 76.91% antioxidant activity was observed in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model. The extract contained total phenolics (41 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (10 mg CE/g). The GC-MS analysis of Hypoxis hemerocallidea bulb revealed 29 and 160 bioactive compounds for 50% MeOH and PE extracts, respectively. Based on the cytotoxicity, Hypoxis hemerocallidea had LC50 value of 210.9 ± 18.4 and 95.5 ± 13.3 μg/ml for PE and MeOH extracts, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The bulb extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea exhibited good antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, which could be attributed to the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and the other bioactive compounds identified through GC-MS, making it a potentially effective cosmetic plant. These findings also account for the multi-pharmacological use of Hypoxis hemerocallidea in traditional medicine, especially related to skin diseases. The plant extracts can be considered as safe based on their LC50 values (< 20 μg/ml). However, other form of cytotoxicity studies need to be carried out on Hypoxis hemerocallidea, as well as in vivo tests, to confirm its safety and efficacy as a treatment for skin-related diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.Agricultural Research Council, Vegetables and Ornamental Plants, Private Bag X293, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa.Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 Pretoria, South Africa.Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 Pretoria, South Africa.Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) Centre, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North-West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa; Food Security and Safety Niche Area, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, North West Province, South Africa. Electronic address: Oladapo.aremu@nwu.ac.za.School of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, University of Mpumalanga, Private Bag X11283, Mbombela, 1200, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31265885

Citation

Mwinga, James L., et al. "In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Hypoxis Hemerocallidea Against Six Pathogens With Dermatological Relevance and Its Phytochemical Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 242, 2019, p. 112048.
Mwinga JL, Asong JA, Amoo SO, et al. In vitro antimicrobial effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea against six pathogens with dermatological relevance and its phytochemical characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019;242:112048.
Mwinga, J. L., Asong, J. A., Amoo, S. O., Nkadimeng, S. M., McGaw, L. J., Aremu, A. O., & Otang-Mbeng, W. (2019). In vitro antimicrobial effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea against six pathogens with dermatological relevance and its phytochemical characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 242, 112048. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112048
Mwinga JL, et al. In Vitro Antimicrobial Effects of Hypoxis Hemerocallidea Against Six Pathogens With Dermatological Relevance and Its Phytochemical Characterization and Cytotoxicity Evaluation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Oct 5;242:112048. PubMed PMID: 31265885.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - In vitro antimicrobial effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea against six pathogens with dermatological relevance and its phytochemical characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation. AU - Mwinga,James L, AU - Asong,John A, AU - Amoo,Stephen O, AU - Nkadimeng,Sanah M, AU - McGaw,Lyndy J, AU - Aremu,Adeyemi O, AU - Otang-Mbeng,Wilfred, Y1 - 2019/06/29/ PY - 2019/05/13/received PY - 2019/06/26/revised PY - 2019/06/28/accepted PY - 2019/7/3/pubmed PY - 2020/1/29/medline PY - 2019/7/3/entrez KW - Antibacterial KW - Antifungal KW - Antioxidant KW - Cytotoxicity KW - Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) KW - Hypoxis hemerocallidea KW - Phytochemistry KW - Phytocosmetics SP - 112048 EP - 112048 JF - Journal of ethnopharmacology JO - J Ethnopharmacol VL - 242 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hypoxis hemerocallidea (commonly known as African Potato) is popular in African traditional medicine. It is used in the management of diverse ailments including burns, wounds and skin-related diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The current study investigated the antimicrobial effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea against six microorganisms associated with skin diseases. In addition, the antioxidant activity, phytochemical profiles and cytotoxicity of the bulb extracts were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antimicrobial activity of 50% methanol (MeOH) and petroleum ether (PE) extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea bulbs was tested against two bacterial and four fungal strains implicated in causing opportunistic skin-related diseases. Antioxidant potential of the extract was investigated via the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene linoleic acid model. Phytochemical profiling of the 50% MeOH extract of Hypoxis hemerocallidea was done using spectrophotometric assay and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The extracts were also evaluated for cytotoxicity against African green monkey Vero kidney cell lines based on the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Both 50% MeOH and PE extracts showed considerable inhibitory effects against all six microorganisms. The extracts were potent against Shigella flexneri and Trichophyton tonsurans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values less than 1 mg/ml. However, there was relatively poor antifungal activity against the other fungal strains. In the DPPH assay, the MeOH extract of the bulb had an EC50 of 29.8 μg/ml while 76.91% antioxidant activity was observed in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model. The extract contained total phenolics (41 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (10 mg CE/g). The GC-MS analysis of Hypoxis hemerocallidea bulb revealed 29 and 160 bioactive compounds for 50% MeOH and PE extracts, respectively. Based on the cytotoxicity, Hypoxis hemerocallidea had LC50 value of 210.9 ± 18.4 and 95.5 ± 13.3 μg/ml for PE and MeOH extracts, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The bulb extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea exhibited good antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, which could be attributed to the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and the other bioactive compounds identified through GC-MS, making it a potentially effective cosmetic plant. These findings also account for the multi-pharmacological use of Hypoxis hemerocallidea in traditional medicine, especially related to skin diseases. The plant extracts can be considered as safe based on their LC50 values (< 20 μg/ml). However, other form of cytotoxicity studies need to be carried out on Hypoxis hemerocallidea, as well as in vivo tests, to confirm its safety and efficacy as a treatment for skin-related diseases. SN - 1872-7573 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31265885/In_vitro_antimicrobial_effects_of_Hypoxis_hemerocallidea_against_six_pathogens_with_dermatological_relevance_and_its_phytochemical_characterization_and_cytotoxicity_evaluation_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-8741(19)31911-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -