Epidemiological Investigation of the Outbreak of Acute Respiratory Infection caused by Adenovirus Type B55 in a Physical Education School in 2017.Infect Chemother 2019; 51(2):119-129IC
On May 19, 2017, the cluster of 6 acute respiratory infections due to adenovirus in the swimming department of a physical education school (School J) was reported to Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the transmission route of the infection and to control the outbreak.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A retrospective cohort study (Study 1) was conducted on students and teachers of the athletic departments using the swimming pool, and a prospective surveillance (Study 2) was conducted on all students and teachers of the School J. A case was defined as any student and school personnel who developed more than two of the following symptoms from April 10 to July 2, 2017: fever, sore throat, cough, rhinorrhea, or headache. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated to compare the attack rates according to potential risk factors. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for infection in the outbreak.
47 cases were identified: 33 (55.9%) cases occurred among 59 students and teachers in Study 1 and 14 (3.9%) among 362 students and school personnel in Study 2. There were 18 laboratory confirmed adenovirus infection cases. The common symptoms were headache (71.7%), fever (69.6%), rhinorrhea (63.0%), sputum (56.5%), and sore throat (54.3%). 23.9% of the cases were accompanied with diarrhea and 19.6% with eye congestion. None of the cases developed pneumonia. 32.6% of the cases were hospitalized. In Study 1, attack rate in the swimming department was higher than that in others (RR: 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-3.60). In Study 2, being a member of the shooting department (RR: 20.70; 95% CI: 4.90-87.47) and being a first year high school student (RR: 10.95; 95% CI: 2.90-41.33) were identified as risk factors for the infections. Genetic analyses of the adenoviruses showed 100% identical sequence in homology and confirmed the human adenovirus B55 (HAdV-B55). No adenovirus was detected at examining the water and environment of the swimming pool and dormitory.
The outbreak is inferred to be occurred via propagated transmission among the students in the same athletic department, while the students with symptoms of respiratory infection continued performing school activities without any restrictions. Infection control measures such as early detection of symptoms of respiratory infection and restriction of group activity are necessary to prevent respiratory infection outbreak in the communal living setting.