Contiguous gene deletion in a Chinese family with X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: challenges in early diagnosis and implications for affected families.J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2019; 32(8):915-920JP
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disorder of the renal collecting tubules, characterized by an inability to concentrate urine due to an impaired response to arginine vasopressin (AVP), resulting in dilute urine and polyuria. Causes of NDI are heterogeneous and diagnosing congenital NDI (cNDI) in young infants is clinically challenging, as typical symptoms are often unappreciated or inconspicuous. Instead, young infants may present with non-specific signs such as vomiting, poor feeding, failure to thrive, unexplained fevers, irritability, constipation or diarrhea. We report a 37-day-old infant who presented with polyuria and severe hypernatremic dehydration that was unresponsive to vasopressin. The patient was treated with amiloride, indomethacin and hydrochlorothiazide. Genetic analysis revealed a novel contiguous deletion involving the entire AVPR2 gene and the last exon of the adjacent ARHGAP4 gene. A study of the family confirmed the carrier status in the mother. This case illustrates the importance of molecular testing in confirming the diagnosis in the index patient, as well as in identifying asymptomatic at-risk female carriers so that appropriate genetic counselling can be given for reproductive planning. All pediatric patients with suspected cNDI should undergo genetic analysis for a definitive diagnosis.