Zinc-induced root architectural changes of rhizotron-grown B. napus correlate with a differential nitro-oxidative response.Nitric Oxide. 2019 09 01; 90:55-65.NO
Roots have a noteworthy plasticity: due to different stress conditions their architecture can change to favour seedling vigour and yield stability. The development of the root system is regulated by a complex and diverse signalling network, which besides hormonal factors, includes reactive oxygen (ROS) - and nitrogen species (RNS). The delicate balance of the endogenous signal system can be affected by various environmental stimuli, such as the excess of essential heavy metals, like zinc (Zn). Zn at low concentration, is able to induce the morphological and physiological adaptation of the root system, but in excess it exerts toxic effects on plants. In this study the effect of a low, growth-inducing, and a high, growth inhibiting Zn concentrations on the early development of Brassica napus (L.) root architecture and the underlying nitro-oxidative mechanisms were studied in a soil-filled rhizotron system. The growth-inhibiting Zn treatment resulted in elevated protein tyrosine nitration due to the imbalance in ROS and RNS homeostasis, however its pattern was not changed compared to the control. This nitro-oxidative stress was accompanied by serious changes in the cell wall composition and decrease in the cell proliferation and viability, due to the high Zn uptake and disturbed microelement homeostasis in the root tips. During the positive root growth response, a tyrosine nitration-pattern reorganisation was observed; there were no substantial changes in ROS and RNS balance and the viability and proliferation of the root tips' meristematic zone decreased to a lesser extent, as a result of a lower Zn uptake. The obtained results suggest that Zn in different amounts triggers different root growth responses accompanied by distinct changes in the pattern and strength of tyrosine nitration, proposing that nitrosative processes have an important role in the stress-induced root growth responses.