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Consuming Vegetable-Based Salad Is Associated with Higher Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality among US Adults, What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014.
J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019 12; 119(12):2085-2092.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Consuming salad is one strategy with the potential to harmonize diets more closely with national dietary guidance. However, it is not known whether nutrient intake and diet quality differ between people who consume vegetable-based salad and those who do not.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intake and diet quality between salad reporters and nonreporters.

DESIGN

This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1 day of dietary intake data collected via 24-hour recall.

PARTICIPANTS/SETTING

Adults 20 years and older (n=9,678) in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 were included. Respondents who ate salad on the intake day were considered salad reporters.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

This study estimated nutrient intake from all foods and beverages (excluding supplements) and evaluated diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015.

STATISTICAL ANALYSES

Nutrient intake and HEI scores were compared between salad reporters and nonreporters using paired t tests with regression adjustment for confounding variables. Results were considered significant at P<0.001.

RESULTS

On the intake day, 23% of adults consumed salad. Energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes did not differ between salad reporters and nonreporters. Salad reporters had higher intakes than nonreporters of dietary fiber, total fat, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, B-6, C, E, K, folate, choline, magnesium, potassium, and sodium (P<0.001). Total HEI 2015 scores were significantly higher for reporters (56 of a possible 100 points) than nonreporters (50 points) P<0.001. Reporters also had significantly higher scores for eight of 13 HEI components: total vegetables, greens and beans, whole fruits, total protein foods, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, and added sugars (P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Incorporating vegetable-based salad into one's diet may be one effective way to increase nutrient intake and improve overall diet quality. Regardless of salad reporting status, HEI scores show that diets of US adults need improvement.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31278048

Citation

Hoy, M Katherine, et al. "Consuming Vegetable-Based Salad Is Associated With Higher Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality Among US Adults, what We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 119, no. 12, 2019, pp. 2085-2092.
Hoy MK, Sebastian RS, Goldman JD, et al. Consuming Vegetable-Based Salad Is Associated with Higher Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality among US Adults, What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019;119(12):2085-2092.
Hoy, M. K., Sebastian, R. S., Goldman, J. D., Wilkinson Enns, C., & Moshfegh, A. J. (2019). Consuming Vegetable-Based Salad Is Associated with Higher Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality among US Adults, What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 119(12), 2085-2092. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2019.04.018
Hoy MK, et al. Consuming Vegetable-Based Salad Is Associated With Higher Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality Among US Adults, what We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019;119(12):2085-2092. PubMed PMID: 31278048.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Consuming Vegetable-Based Salad Is Associated with Higher Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality among US Adults, What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014. AU - Hoy,M Katherine, AU - Sebastian,Rhonda S, AU - Goldman,Joseph D, AU - Wilkinson Enns,Cecilia, AU - Moshfegh,Alanna J, Y1 - 2019/07/02/ PY - 2018/09/26/received PY - 2019/04/18/revised PY - 2019/04/23/accepted PY - 2019/7/7/pubmed PY - 2020/6/26/medline PY - 2019/7/7/entrez KW - Diet quality KW - Nutrient intake KW - Salad KW - Vegetable intake KW - What We Eat in America NHANES SP - 2085 EP - 2092 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 119 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Consuming salad is one strategy with the potential to harmonize diets more closely with national dietary guidance. However, it is not known whether nutrient intake and diet quality differ between people who consume vegetable-based salad and those who do not. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intake and diet quality between salad reporters and nonreporters. DESIGN: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1 day of dietary intake data collected via 24-hour recall. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Adults 20 years and older (n=9,678) in What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 were included. Respondents who ate salad on the intake day were considered salad reporters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This study estimated nutrient intake from all foods and beverages (excluding supplements) and evaluated diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Nutrient intake and HEI scores were compared between salad reporters and nonreporters using paired t tests with regression adjustment for confounding variables. Results were considered significant at P<0.001. RESULTS: On the intake day, 23% of adults consumed salad. Energy, protein, and carbohydrate intakes did not differ between salad reporters and nonreporters. Salad reporters had higher intakes than nonreporters of dietary fiber, total fat, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, B-6, C, E, K, folate, choline, magnesium, potassium, and sodium (P<0.001). Total HEI 2015 scores were significantly higher for reporters (56 of a possible 100 points) than nonreporters (50 points) P<0.001. Reporters also had significantly higher scores for eight of 13 HEI components: total vegetables, greens and beans, whole fruits, total protein foods, seafood and plant proteins, fatty acids, refined grains, and added sugars (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating vegetable-based salad into one's diet may be one effective way to increase nutrient intake and improve overall diet quality. Regardless of salad reporting status, HEI scores show that diets of US adults need improvement. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31278048/Consuming_Vegetable_Based_Salad_Is_Associated_with_Higher_Nutrient_Intakes_and_Diet_Quality_among_US_Adults_What_We_Eat_in_America_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey_2011_2014_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(18)32049-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -