Characterization of fibromyalgia using sleep EEG signals with nonlinear dynamical features.Comput Biol Med. 2019 08; 111:103331.CB
Fibromyalgia is an intense musculoskeletal pain causing sleep, fatigue, and mood problems. Sleep studies have suggested that 70%-80% of fibromyalgia patients complain of non-restorative sleep. The abnormalities in sleep have been implicated as both a cause and effect of the disease. In this paper, the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of sleep stages 2 and 3 are used to classify the normal and fibromyalgia classes automatically. We have used various nonlinear parameters, namely sample entropy (SampEn), fractal dimension (FD), higher order spectra (HOS), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), Kolmogorov complexity (KC), Hurst exponent (HE), energy, and power in various frequency bands from the EEG signals. Then these features are subjected to Student's t-test to select the clinically significant features, and are classified using the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Our proposed method can classify normal and fibromyalgia subjects using the stage 2 sleep EEG signals with an accuracy of 96.15%, sensitivity and specificity of 96.88% and 95.65%, respectively. Performance of the developed system can be improved further by adding more subjects in each class, and can be employed for clinical use.