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Development of the Chilean front-of-package food warning label.
BMC Public Health. 2019 Jul 08; 19(1):906.BP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Front-of package (FoP) nutrition labels are an option to guide consumer's decision at the point of food purchase. Chile was the first country worldwide to implement a FoP warning label and thereafter several countries have followed this model. The objective of this study is to describe the process of development of the Chilean FoP warning label.

METHODS

A stepwise study was conducted including literature review, qualitative phase (lay audience & expert group meetings) and quantitative phase in women/adolescents from low-middle-socioeconomic status neighborhoods, Santiago, Chile (2 sub-studies, using point-of-sale questionnaires). Outcomes were prototype visualization, ease of understanding, and ability to modify purchase behavior.

RESULTS

The literature review and qualitative phase provided information on general text (e.g. short wording) and design characteristics (e.g. use of a logo, use of red or black colors); based on these characteristics 15 prototypes were created and quantitatively tested. In the first survey, a black-&-white stop sign and a black-&-white hand were preselected; in the second survey, the stop sign stating 'Excess of <nutrient>' had significantly better performance than the hand in terms of visualization, intention to purchase, and ability to modify intended purchase. Due to legal reasons the "excess of" was replaced by "high-in" in the final implementation of the law.

CONCLUSIONS

A simple black-&-white stop sign warning label was the best option to flag pre-packaged foods with an excess of energy or nutrients of concern for non-communicable diseases; this FoP warning label was implemented in Chile in June 2016 as part of the Chilean Food Labeling and Marketing Law.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Av. El Líbano 5524, Macul, 138-11, Santiago, Casilla, Chile.Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Av. El Líbano 5524, Macul, 138-11, Santiago, Casilla, Chile.Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Av. El Líbano 5524, Macul, 138-11, Santiago, Casilla, Chile.Business School, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile.Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Av. El Líbano 5524, Macul, 138-11, Santiago, Casilla, Chile.Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Av. El Líbano 5524, Macul, 138-11, Santiago, Casilla, Chile. ccorvalan@inta.uchile.cl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31286910

Citation

Reyes, Marcela, et al. "Development of the Chilean Front-of-package Food Warning Label." BMC Public Health, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 906.
Reyes M, Garmendia ML, Olivares S, et al. Development of the Chilean front-of-package food warning label. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):906.
Reyes, M., Garmendia, M. L., Olivares, S., Aqueveque, C., Zacarías, I., & Corvalán, C. (2019). Development of the Chilean front-of-package food warning label. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 906. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7118-1
Reyes M, et al. Development of the Chilean Front-of-package Food Warning Label. BMC Public Health. 2019 Jul 8;19(1):906. PubMed PMID: 31286910.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Development of the Chilean front-of-package food warning label. AU - Reyes,Marcela, AU - Garmendia,María Luisa, AU - Olivares,Sonia, AU - Aqueveque,Claudio, AU - Zacarías,Isabel, AU - Corvalán,Camila, Y1 - 2019/07/08/ PY - 2018/10/24/received PY - 2019/06/07/accepted PY - 2019/7/10/entrez PY - 2019/7/10/pubmed PY - 2019/10/11/medline KW - Chilean labelling law KW - FoP KW - Front-of-package KW - Stop signs KW - Warning label SP - 906 EP - 906 JF - BMC public health JO - BMC Public Health VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Front-of package (FoP) nutrition labels are an option to guide consumer's decision at the point of food purchase. Chile was the first country worldwide to implement a FoP warning label and thereafter several countries have followed this model. The objective of this study is to describe the process of development of the Chilean FoP warning label. METHODS: A stepwise study was conducted including literature review, qualitative phase (lay audience & expert group meetings) and quantitative phase in women/adolescents from low-middle-socioeconomic status neighborhoods, Santiago, Chile (2 sub-studies, using point-of-sale questionnaires). Outcomes were prototype visualization, ease of understanding, and ability to modify purchase behavior. RESULTS: The literature review and qualitative phase provided information on general text (e.g. short wording) and design characteristics (e.g. use of a logo, use of red or black colors); based on these characteristics 15 prototypes were created and quantitatively tested. In the first survey, a black-&-white stop sign and a black-&-white hand were preselected; in the second survey, the stop sign stating 'Excess of <nutrient>' had significantly better performance than the hand in terms of visualization, intention to purchase, and ability to modify intended purchase. Due to legal reasons the "excess of" was replaced by "high-in" in the final implementation of the law. CONCLUSIONS: A simple black-&-white stop sign warning label was the best option to flag pre-packaged foods with an excess of energy or nutrients of concern for non-communicable diseases; this FoP warning label was implemented in Chile in June 2016 as part of the Chilean Food Labeling and Marketing Law. SN - 1471-2458 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31286910/Development_of_the_Chilean_front_of_package_food_warning_label_ L2 - https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-7118-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -