Nanodiamond for Sample Preparation in Proteomics.Anal Chem 2019; 91(15):9800-9805AC
Protein analysis of potential disease markers in blood is complicated by the fact that proteins in plasma show very different abundances. As a result, high-abundance proteins dominate the analysis, which often render the analysis of low-abundance proteins impossible. Depleting high-abundance proteins is one strategy to solve this problem. Here, we present, for the first time, a very simple approach based on selective binding of serum proteins to the surface of nanodiamonds. In our first proof-of-principle experiments, we were able to detect, on average, eight proteins that are present at a concentration of 1 ng/mL (instead of 0.5 ng/mL in the control without sample preparation). Remarkably, we detect proteins down to a concentration of 400 pg/mL after only one simple depletion step. Among the proteins we could analyze are also numerous disease biomarkers, including markers for multiple cancer forms, cardiovascular diseases, or Alzheimer's disease. Remarkably, many of the biomarkers we find also could not be detected with a state-of-the-art ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography column (which depletes the 64 most-abundant serum proteins).