Effect of aging on behaviour of mesenchymal stem cells.World J Stem Cells 2019; 11(6):337-346WJ
Organs whose source is the mesoderm lineage contain a subpopulation of stem cells that are able to differentiate among mesodermal derivatives (chondrocytes, osteocytes, adipocytes). This subpopulation of adult stem cells, called "mesenchymal stem cells" or "mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)", contributes directly to the homeostatic maintenance of their organs; hence, their senescence could be very deleterious for human bodily functions. MSCs are easily isolated and amenable their expansion in vitro because of the research demanding to test them in many diverse clinical indications. All of these works are shown by the rapidly expanding literature that includes many in vivo animal models. We do not have an in-depth understanding of mechanisms that induce cellular senescence, and to further clarify the consequences of the senescence process in MSCs, some hints may be derived from the study of cellular behaviour in vivo and in vitro, autophagy, mitochondrial stress and exosomal activity. In this particular work, we decided to review these biological features in the literature on MSC senescence over the last three years.