Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Asia: An update.Acta Trop 2019; 199:105074AT
Paragonimiasis, or lung fluke disease, is a typical food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with trematodes belonging to the genus Paragonimus. More than 50 species of Paragonimus have been reported throughout the world, of which seven valid species infect humans, an estimated one million people annually worldwide. Among the seven species, P. westermani, P. heterotremus, and P. skrjabini/P. s. miyazakii, distributed in Asia, are the most important species as the cause of paragonimiasis. Humans acquire infection through the ingestion of raw, pickled or undercooked freshwater crustaceans, 2nd intermediate hosts, or consuming raw meat of wild boar or deer, paratenic hosts. Infections often occur clustered in foci where dietary habits allow transmission of the parasites. Paragonimiasis typically causes a subacute to chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs. The symptoms, including chronic cough, chest pain, dyspnea and hemoptysis, mimic those of tuberculosis and lung cancer. Serologic tests are commonly used for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis, and Praziquantel is the treatment of choice. In this review, the current status of Paragonimus and paragonimiasis in Asia is outlined based on the latest information and findings. We also summarize current trends of paragonimiasis in Japan, which is one of the most endemic area of paragonimiasis in the world, for the better understanding and control of paragonimiasis.