Paragonimiasis.Adv Exp Med Biol 2019; 1154:105-138AE
Paragonimiasis is a zoonotic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. Humans usually become infected by eating freshwater crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae of these worms. However, an alternative route of infection exists: ingestion of raw meat from a mammalian paratenic host. Adult worms normally occur in pairs in cysts in the lungs from which they void their eggs via air passages. The pulmonary form is typical in cases of human infection due to P. westermani, P. heterotremus, and a few other species (Table 5.1). Worms may occupy other sites in the body, notably the brain, but lung flukes have made their presence felt in almost every organ. Ectopic paragonimiasis is particularly common when infection is due to members of the P. skrjabini complex (Table 5.1). Human paragonimiasis occurs primarily in the tropics and subtropics of Asia, Africa, and the Americas, with different species being responsible in different areas (Table 5.1).