[Clinical evaluation of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for severe lumbar spinal stenosis].Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019; 33(7):801-806ZX
To investigate the clinical results and complication prevention of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in the treatment of single-segment severe lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS).
The clinical data of 112 patients with severe LSS treated with MIS-TLIF between January 2010 and January 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 43 males and 69 females, aged 52-81 years, with an average age of 65.3 years. The disease duration ranged from 4 to 126 months, with an average of 10.5 months. Clinical manifestations: 104 cases of low back pain, 91 cases of nervous intermittent claudication of both lower limbs, 21 cases of unilateral nerve root pain and/or numbness, and 5 cases of cauda equina nerve injury. The 112 cases were all severe central spinal stenosis, including 32 cases with lateral recess stenosis, 20 cases with foramen stenosis, 9 cases with ossification of ligamentum flavum, 38 cases with disc herniation; 14 cases with two complications and 5 cases with three. Stenosis segment: L 3, 4 in 6 cases, L 4, 5 in 89 cases, and L 5, S 1 in 17 cases. Surgical methods included bilateral decompression through bilateral approach (60 cases), bilateral decompression through unilateral approach (15 cases), and unilateral decompression (37 cases). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, visual analogue scale (VAS) score of low back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score, fusion rate, and surgical complications were recorded. At last follow-up, the lumbar fusion was evaluated by Bridwell method, grades Ⅰ and Ⅱ were expressed as fusion.
The operation time was 83-186 minutes (mean, 126.8 minutes), and the intraoperative blood loss was 65-630 mL (mean, 163.1 mL). All the 112 patients were followed up 25-49 months, with an average of 35.1 months. The VAS score of low back pain and leg pain and ODI score at each time point after operation were significantly improved when compared with preoperative scores (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the VAS score of low back pain and leg pain and ODI score at the other time points except 1 month after operation (P<0.05). At last follow-up, 2 cases of cauda equina nerve injury recovered and 3 cases partially recovered. According to Bridwell classification criteria, 58 cases were grade Ⅰ, 47 cases were grade Ⅱ, and 7 cases were grade Ⅲ. The fusion rate was 93.8%. Perioperative complications included 5 cases of incision complications (superficial infection in 3 cases, hematoma formation in 2 cases), 19 cases of internal fixator complications (intraoperative end plate fracture in 8 cases, fusion cage sinking in 11 cases at last follow-up), and 15 cases of neurological complications (dural sac tear in 10 cases, transient neurological symptoms of lower extremities aggravated in 5 cases).
MIS-TLIF treatment of single-level severe LSS can achieve good clinical results, while there is a risk of serious complications. Full understanding of the clinical and imaging features of the disease and reasonable and careful operation are helpful to control the occurrence of cauda equina nerve damage.