Part II - Ectoparasites: Pediculosis and Tungiasis.J Am Acad Dermatol 2019JA
Pediculosis is an infestation of lice on the body, head, and/or pubic region that occurs worldwide. Lice are ectoparasites of the order Phthiraptera that feed on the blood of infested hosts. Their morphotype dictates their clinical features. Body lice may transmit bacterial pathogens that cause trench fever, relapsing fever, and epidemic typhus, which are potentially life-threatening diseases that remain relevant in contemporary times. Recent data from some settings suggest head lice may harbor pathogens. Herein, the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and management of body, head, and pubic louse infestation are reviewed. New therapies for head lice and screening considerations for pubic lice are discussed. Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by skin penetration by the female Tunga penetrans or, less commonly, Tunga trimamillata flea. It is endemic in Latin America, the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa and seen in travelers returning from these regions. Herein, risk factors for acquiring tungiasis, associated morbidity, and potential strategies for prevention and treatment are discussed.