Clinical neurophysiology of NREM parasomnias.Handb Clin Neurol 2019; 161:397-410HC
The nonrapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias range from age-related developmental phenomena in children to aggressive and injurious motor behaviors in all age groups. These parasomnias are commonly referred to as disorders of arousal and are an important cause of sleep-related injury. Genetic predisposition plays a role in the disorders of arousal, most evident in sleepwalking. Important concepts guiding our current understanding of the pathophysiology of the NREM parasomnias include sleep state instability (a propensity for arousal during NREM sleep), sleep inertia (incomplete awakening from NREM sleep), state dissociation (an ability to simultaneously straddle both NREM sleep and wakefulness), and activation of central pattern generators (permitting expression of subcortically determined motor behaviors without conscious higher cortical input). Management is multifaceted with an emphasis on education and nonpharmacologic measures. The purpose of this chapter is to review wake and NREM neurobiology and update our current understanding of NREM parasomnia pathophysiology, epidemiology, genetics, clinical features, precipitating factors, neurophysiologic evaluation, diagnosis, and clinical management.