Development of a Microbial Decontamination System Combining Washing with Highly Activated Calcium Oxide Solution and Antimicrobial Coating for Improvement of Mandarin Storability.J Food Sci. 2019 Aug; 84(8):2190-2198.JF
A new microbial decontamination system combining washing with a natural antimicrobial solution and coating with a carnauba wax (CW)-based antimicrobial coating was developed and its effects on mandarin storability were investigated. Mandarins were washed with an antimicrobial solution and/or coated with grapefruit seed extract-CW (GSE/CW). Values for the disease incidence of Penicillium digitatum in untreated mandarins; mandarins coated with GSE/CW without washing; and mandarins coated with GSE/CW after washing with a fumaric acid (FA) solution of slightly acidic electrolyzed water, a highly activated calcium oxide (CaO) aqueous solution, or CaO solution followed by FA solution were 96.0, 70.0, 78.8, 50.0, and 72.2%, respectively. GSE/CW coating after CaO washing was most effective in inhibiting P. digitatum growth during storage at 25 °C. Compared to untreated samples, GSE/CW coating alone or after CaO washing retained CO2 generation, firmness, and total polyphenol content of mandarins at 25 °C. Such treatments also effectively maintained mandarin pH, ascorbic acid concentration, and antioxidant capacity at both 4 and 25 °C. Moreover, GSE/CW coating after CaO washing more effectively inhibited P. digitatum growth at 25 °C and maintained ascorbic acid concentration and antioxidant capacity at 4 and 25 °C than GSE/CW coating alone. The microbial decontamination system integrating CaO washing and GSE/CW coating demonstrates potential for improving mandarin storability by inhibiting P. digitatum growth and improving the preservation of quality properties and sensory characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This is the first study to develop a microbial decontamination system involving both washing with a natural antimicrobial solution and carnauba wax coating containing grapefruit seed extract to improve the storability of fruits. This system demonstrated a primary effect of inhibiting fungi that cause mandarin surface decay at 25 °C via the highly activated calcium oxide wash and secondary effects of delaying quality degradation and inhibiting fungal growth by the action of the antimicrobial coating. These effects led to improvements in mandarin storability, along with enhanced visual appeal while not affecting taste, flavor, or texture.