Changes in beverage consumption in Canada.Health Rep. 2019 07 17; 30(7):20-30.HR
Beverage consumption, especially water, is critical to a healthy diet. The 2007 Canada's Food Guide (CFG) makes specific recommendations regarding the intake of water, fruit juice, milk and energy-dense beverages. Earlier comparisons of 2004 and 2015 dietary data show that changing patterns in beverage intake can explain some of the changes in energy and sugar intake observed in the Canadian population. The objective of this study is to describe any changes in beverage consumption between 2004 and 2015, and how these changes relate to existing recommendations in the 2007 CFG.
DATA AND METHODS
Data are from the Canadian Community Health Survey - Nutrition for 2004 and 2015. To estimate any change in the proportion of Canadians consuming a beverage the day before and the quantity consumed, 19 beverage categories were derived using the Bureau of Nutritional Science categories. The CFG classification was used to estimate the relative share of juice intake from total servings of vegetables and fruit, and the intake of milk from milk subcategories. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual intake.
Water intake was higher in 2015 than in 2004. Consumption of milk, fruit juice, and energy-dense beverages such as fruit drinks and soft drinks was lower in 2015. Changes in water, soft drink and fruit drink consumption mostly reflect changes in the proportion of Canadians consuming these specific beverages the day before reporting, while changes in milk and fruit juice mostly reflect a change in the quantity consumed. In 2015, the majority of the population was consuming more whole vegetables and fruit than juice, which is in line with 2007 CFG recommendations.
Beverage consumption patterns in Canada changed between 2004 and 2015. Some of these changes are in line with recommendations from the 2007 CFG, the food guide that was available at the time of the 2015 survey.