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Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora sojae.

Abstract

Chitin is a structural and functional component of the fungal cell wall and also serves as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers the innate immune responses of host plants. However, no or very little chitin is found in the fungus-like oomycetes. In Phytophthora spp., the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, which encode the enzymes that synthesize chitin, are present in their genomes. Here, we revealed that chitin is present in the zoospores and released sporangia of Phytophthora, and this is most consistent with the transcriptional pattern of PcCHS in Phytophthora capsici and PsCHS1 in Phytophthora sojae. Disruption of the CHS genes indicated that PcCHS and PsCHS1, but not PsCHS2 (which exhibited very weak transcription), have similar functions involved in mycelial growth, sporangial production, zoospore release and the pathogenesis of P. capsici and P. sojae. We also suggest that chitin in the zoospores of P. capsici can act as a PAMP that is recognized by the chitin receptors AtLYK5 or AtCERK1 of Arabidopsis. These results provide new insights into the biological significance of chitin and CHSs in Phytophthora and help with the identification of potential targets for disease control.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Education Minister Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China. Key Laboratory of Applied Genetics of Universities in Fujian Province, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China. Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.National Education Minister Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China. Key Laboratory of Applied Genetics of Universities in Fujian Province, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.National Education Minister Key Laboratory of Plant Genetic Improvement and Comprehensive Utilization, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China. Key Laboratory of Applied Genetics of Universities in Fujian Province, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. The Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31314944

Citation

Cheng, Wei, et al. "Chitin Synthase Is Involved in Vegetative Growth, Asexual Reproduction and Pathogenesis of Phytophthora Capsici and Phytophthora Sojae." Environmental Microbiology, 2019.
Cheng W, Lin M, Qiu M, et al. Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora sojae. Environ Microbiol. 2019.
Cheng, W., Lin, M., Qiu, M., Kong, L., Xu, Y., Li, Y., ... Wang, Y. (2019). Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora sojae. Environmental Microbiology, doi:10.1111/1462-2920.14744.
Cheng W, et al. Chitin Synthase Is Involved in Vegetative Growth, Asexual Reproduction and Pathogenesis of Phytophthora Capsici and Phytophthora Sojae. Environ Microbiol. 2019 Jul 17; PubMed PMID: 31314944.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chitin synthase is involved in vegetative growth, asexual reproduction and pathogenesis of Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora sojae. AU - Cheng,Wei, AU - Lin,Menglan, AU - Qiu,Min, AU - Kong,Liang, AU - Xu,Yuanpeng, AU - Li,Yaning, AU - Wang,Yan, AU - Ye,Wenwu, AU - Dong,Suomeng, AU - He,Shuilin, AU - Wang,Yuanchao, Y1 - 2019/07/17/ PY - 2018/12/27/received PY - 2019/07/13/revised PY - 2019/07/13/accepted PY - 2019/7/18/pubmed PY - 2019/7/18/medline PY - 2019/7/18/entrez JF - Environmental microbiology JO - Environ. Microbiol. N2 - Chitin is a structural and functional component of the fungal cell wall and also serves as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers the innate immune responses of host plants. However, no or very little chitin is found in the fungus-like oomycetes. In Phytophthora spp., the presence of chitin has not been demonstrated so far, although putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes, which encode the enzymes that synthesize chitin, are present in their genomes. Here, we revealed that chitin is present in the zoospores and released sporangia of Phytophthora, and this is most consistent with the transcriptional pattern of PcCHS in Phytophthora capsici and PsCHS1 in Phytophthora sojae. Disruption of the CHS genes indicated that PcCHS and PsCHS1, but not PsCHS2 (which exhibited very weak transcription), have similar functions involved in mycelial growth, sporangial production, zoospore release and the pathogenesis of P. capsici and P. sojae. We also suggest that chitin in the zoospores of P. capsici can act as a PAMP that is recognized by the chitin receptors AtLYK5 or AtCERK1 of Arabidopsis. These results provide new insights into the biological significance of chitin and CHSs in Phytophthora and help with the identification of potential targets for disease control. SN - 1462-2920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31314944/Chitin_synthase_is_involved_in_vegetative_growth,_asexual_reproduction,_and_pathogenesis_of_Phytophthora_capsici_and_P._sojae L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14744 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -