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[Congenital middle ear malformation: clinical analysis and discussion of classification].

Abstract

Objective:

To analyze the clinical characteristics and appropriate surgical procedures, and discuss the classification of congenital middle ear malformation.

Methods:

All cases were from the Center of Otorhinolaryngology, the Sixth Medical Center of Department of PLA General Hospital. All of these cases, including 26 male patients (ears) , 10 female patients (11 ears) , aged from 7 to 57 years old, had normal external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, conductive hearing loss, type A tympanogram and negative Gelle's test. Tympanoplasty was performed in all cases. The deformity was classified to three types,i.e., Type I (stapes foot plate mobility): Ⅰa, ossicular chain deformity with normal stapes suprastructure; Ⅰb, ossicular chain deformity with abnormal stapes suprastructure; Type Ⅱ (stapes foot plate fixation): Ⅱ a,normal ossicular chain, Ⅱ b, ossicular chain malformation; and Type Ⅲ: vestibular window osseous atresia or undeveloped, or with round window atresia. The malformation of type Ⅱ and Ⅲ may be accompanied with abnormal facial nerve. In addition, the papers on middle ear malformation published from 1982 to 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical data of 451 ears malformation were summarized.

Results:

According to the revisional classification criteria in 37 ear samples from our hospital, 20 ears were type I. 6 type Ⅰa cases were used PORP (partial ossicular replacement prosthesis) to reconstruct the ossicular chain; 14 type Ⅰb cases were used TORP (total ossicular replacement prosthesis) to reconstruct the ossicular chain. For the 5 ears of type Ⅱ, 2 of which were type Ⅱ a and 3 were type Ⅱ b. 4 ear samples of type Ⅱ were implanted with Piston ossicular prosthesis, 1 was implanted with TORP in which the ossificated foot plate was removed with periosteum preserved. 12 ear samples were type Ⅲ, with vestibular window osseous atresia, facial nerve malformation, and stapes suprastructure malformation. The pistons ossicular prosthesis were implanted in vestibular window in 3 ears with facial nerve covering vestibular window partially. The surgery had to be given up in 5 ears, and TORP was implanted in 4 ears at the opening with preserved periosteum at the beginning of the tympanic scala because of facial nerve covering vestibular window totally. 30 ears with complete follow-up data had no sensorineural hearing loss and the average air-bone conduction decreased 23.3±10.7 dB (P<0.05).There were 234 ears of type Ⅰ in 451 ears of congenital middle ear malformation reported in the literature. 113 of which were type Ⅰa, the basic surgery was ossicular chain shaking and artificial or autogenous PORP implantation. Type Ⅰb was 121 ears, with autogenous or artificial TORP and PORP. Type Ⅱ was125 ears, including type Ⅱa 22 ears, Ⅱb 60 ears, and no subclassification for 43 ears. The surgery of type Ⅱ was the same as otosclerosis. The vestibular window atresia of type Ⅲ was 92 ears, the surgery of 17 ears had to be abandoned, the other ears underwent vestibular window, promontory or semicircular canal opening to reconstruct hearing with Piston, autogenous or artificial TORP.

Conclusion:

Referring to the classification of congenital middle ear malformation combining with appropriate surgical materials and methods, otologists can better understand and choose appropriate surgical method to the middle ear malformation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the Sixth Medical Center of People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China.Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the Sixth Medical Center of People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China.Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, the Sixth Medical Center of People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China.

Pub Type(s)

English Abstract
Journal Article

Language

chi

PubMed ID

31315353

Citation

Liu, Y, et al. "[Congenital Middle Ear Malformation: Clinical Analysis and Discussion of Classification]." Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, vol. 54, no. 7, 2019, pp. 481-488.
Liu Y, Zhao DH, Lin YS. [Congenital middle ear malformation: clinical analysis and discussion of classification]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2019;54(7):481-488.
Liu, Y., Zhao, D. H., & Lin, Y. S. (2019). [Congenital middle ear malformation: clinical analysis and discussion of classification]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 54(7), pp. 481-488. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1673-0860.2019.07.001.
Liu Y, Zhao DH, Lin YS. [Congenital Middle Ear Malformation: Clinical Analysis and Discussion of Classification]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2019 Jul 7;54(7):481-488. PubMed PMID: 31315353.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [Congenital middle ear malformation: clinical analysis and discussion of classification]. AU - Liu,Y, AU - Zhao,D H, AU - Lin,Y S, PY - 2019/7/19/entrez KW - Congenital abnormalities KW - Ear, middle KW - Ossicular replacement SP - 481 EP - 488 JF - Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery JO - Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi VL - 54 IS - 7 N2 - Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and appropriate surgical procedures, and discuss the classification of congenital middle ear malformation. Methods: All cases were from the Center of Otorhinolaryngology, the Sixth Medical Center of Department of PLA General Hospital. All of these cases, including 26 male patients (ears) , 10 female patients (11 ears) , aged from 7 to 57 years old, had normal external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, conductive hearing loss, type A tympanogram and negative Gelle's test. Tympanoplasty was performed in all cases. The deformity was classified to three types,i.e., Type I (stapes foot plate mobility): Ⅰa, ossicular chain deformity with normal stapes suprastructure; Ⅰb, ossicular chain deformity with abnormal stapes suprastructure; Type Ⅱ (stapes foot plate fixation): Ⅱ a,normal ossicular chain, Ⅱ b, ossicular chain malformation; and Type Ⅲ: vestibular window osseous atresia or undeveloped, or with round window atresia. The malformation of type Ⅱ and Ⅲ may be accompanied with abnormal facial nerve. In addition, the papers on middle ear malformation published from 1982 to 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. The clinical data of 451 ears malformation were summarized. Results: According to the revisional classification criteria in 37 ear samples from our hospital, 20 ears were type I. 6 type Ⅰa cases were used PORP (partial ossicular replacement prosthesis) to reconstruct the ossicular chain; 14 type Ⅰb cases were used TORP (total ossicular replacement prosthesis) to reconstruct the ossicular chain. For the 5 ears of type Ⅱ, 2 of which were type Ⅱ a and 3 were type Ⅱ b. 4 ear samples of type Ⅱ were implanted with Piston ossicular prosthesis, 1 was implanted with TORP in which the ossificated foot plate was removed with periosteum preserved. 12 ear samples were type Ⅲ, with vestibular window osseous atresia, facial nerve malformation, and stapes suprastructure malformation. The pistons ossicular prosthesis were implanted in vestibular window in 3 ears with facial nerve covering vestibular window partially. The surgery had to be given up in 5 ears, and TORP was implanted in 4 ears at the opening with preserved periosteum at the beginning of the tympanic scala because of facial nerve covering vestibular window totally. 30 ears with complete follow-up data had no sensorineural hearing loss and the average air-bone conduction decreased 23.3±10.7 dB (P<0.05).There were 234 ears of type Ⅰ in 451 ears of congenital middle ear malformation reported in the literature. 113 of which were type Ⅰa, the basic surgery was ossicular chain shaking and artificial or autogenous PORP implantation. Type Ⅰb was 121 ears, with autogenous or artificial TORP and PORP. Type Ⅱ was125 ears, including type Ⅱa 22 ears, Ⅱb 60 ears, and no subclassification for 43 ears. The surgery of type Ⅱ was the same as otosclerosis. The vestibular window atresia of type Ⅲ was 92 ears, the surgery of 17 ears had to be abandoned, the other ears underwent vestibular window, promontory or semicircular canal opening to reconstruct hearing with Piston, autogenous or artificial TORP. Conclusion: Referring to the classification of congenital middle ear malformation combining with appropriate surgical materials and methods, otologists can better understand and choose appropriate surgical method to the middle ear malformation. SN - 1673-0860 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31315353/[Congenital_middle_ear_malformation:_clinical_analysis_and_discussion_of_classification] L2 - http://journal.yiigle.com/LinkIn.do?linkin_type=pubmed&amp;issn=1673-0860&amp;year=2019&amp;vol=54&amp;issue=7&amp;fpage=481 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -