Platelet Inflammatory Response to Stress.Front Immunol 2019; 10:1478FI
Blood platelets play a central hemostatic role, (i) as they repair vascular epithelial damage, and (ii) they play immune defense roles, as they have the capacity to produce and secrete various cytokines, chemokines, and related products. Platelets sense and respond to local dangers (infectious or not). Platelets, therefore, mediate inflammation, express and use receptors to bind infectious pathogen moieties and endogenous ligands, among other components. Platelets contribute to effective pathogen clearance. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are danger signals released during inflammatory stress, such as burns, trauma and infection. Each pathogen is recognized by its specific molecular signature or pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). Recent data demonstrate that platelets have the capacity to sense external danger signals (DAMPs or PAMPs) differentially through a distinct type of pathogen recognition receptor (such as Toll-like receptors). Platelets regulate the innate immune response to pathogens and/or endogenous molecules, presenting several types of "danger" signals using a complete signalosome. Platelets, therefore, use complex tools to mediate a wide range of functions from danger sensing to tissue repair. Moreover, we noted that the secretory capacity of stored platelets over time and the development of stress lesions by platelets upon collection, processing, and storage are considered stress signals. The key message of this review is the "inflammatory response to stress" function of platelets in an infectious or non-infectious context.