Competitive formation between 2D and 3D metal-organic frameworks: insights into the selective formation and lamination of a 2D MOF.IUCrJ 2019; 6(Pt 4):681-687I
The structural dimension of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is of great importance in defining their properties and thus applications. In particular, 2D layered MOFs are of considerable interest because of their useful applications, which are facilitated by unique structural features of 2D materials, such as a large number of open active sites and high surface areas. Herein, this work demonstrates a methodology for the selective synthesis of a 2D layered MOF in the presence of the competitive formation of a 3D MOF. The ratio of the reactants, metal ions and organic building blocks used during the reaction is found to be critical for the selective formation of a 2D MOF, and is associated with its chemical composition. In addition, the well defined and uniform micro-sized 2D MOF particles are successfully synthesized in the presence of an ultrasonic dispersion. Moreover, the laminated 2D MOF layers are directly synthesized via a modified bottom-up lamination method, a combination of chemical and physical stimuli, in the presence of surfactant and ultrasonication.