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Experiences of sexual and gender minorities in an urban enclave of Haiti: despised, beaten, stoned, stabbed, shot and raped.
Cult Health Sex 2019; :1-15CH

Abstract

Studies of sexual and gender minorities in Haiti and globally typically involve HIV research and programming with men who have sex with men. We conducted focus groups with individuals in Haiti's Cité Soleil slum whose assigned gender at birth matched neither their gender identity nor contextual heteronormative constructions of gender roles, i.e. transwomen and transmen. The Yogyakarta Principles provided the study framework. Focus group participants offered emic perspectives on overall well-being, identities, biopsychosocial strengths and HIV-protective and risk factors. We found that gender expression that conflicts with contextual norms evoked recurring, humiliating and intentionally injurious sexual assaults against participants, heightening their HIV risk; participants endured beatings, shootings, stabbings, stonings and socio-political violence. Lack of confidentiality and stigma hinder participants' access to scarce HIV resources. Indistinct boundaries between sexuality, gender identity and gender expression merged with traditional gender-based roles to perpetuate sexual violence towards transwomen by cisgender heterosexual men and by transmen towards cisgender heterosexual women. Despite resignation to omnipresent violence, participants showed resilience regarding gender identity. Needed are integrated socio-behavioural and health programmes to challenge existing gender inequities while providing training on human rights and HIV risk reduction for Haitian sexual and gender minorities.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a School of Social Work, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL , USA.a School of Social Work, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL , USA.a School of Social Work, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL , USA.a School of Social Work, College of Behavioral and Community Sciences , University of South Florida , Tampa , FL , USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31318325

Citation

Rahill, Guitele J., et al. "Experiences of Sexual and Gender Minorities in an Urban Enclave of Haiti: Despised, Beaten, Stoned, Stabbed, Shot and Raped." Culture, Health & Sexuality, 2019, pp. 1-15.
Rahill GJ, Joshi M, Galea J, et al. Experiences of sexual and gender minorities in an urban enclave of Haiti: despised, beaten, stoned, stabbed, shot and raped. Cult Health Sex. 2019.
Rahill, G. J., Joshi, M., Galea, J., & Ollis, J. (2019). Experiences of sexual and gender minorities in an urban enclave of Haiti: despised, beaten, stoned, stabbed, shot and raped. Culture, Health & Sexuality, pp. 1-15. doi:10.1080/13691058.2019.1628305.
Rahill GJ, et al. Experiences of Sexual and Gender Minorities in an Urban Enclave of Haiti: Despised, Beaten, Stoned, Stabbed, Shot and Raped. Cult Health Sex. 2019 Jul 18;1-15. PubMed PMID: 31318325.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Experiences of sexual and gender minorities in an urban enclave of Haiti: despised, beaten, stoned, stabbed, shot and raped. AU - Rahill,Guitele J, AU - Joshi,Manisha, AU - Galea,Jerome, AU - Ollis,Jenifer, Y1 - 2019/07/18/ PY - 2019/7/19/entrez KW - HIV KW - Haiti KW - Sexual violence KW - gender-based violence KW - sexual and gender minorities SP - 1 EP - 15 JF - Culture, health & sexuality JO - Cult Health Sex N2 - Studies of sexual and gender minorities in Haiti and globally typically involve HIV research and programming with men who have sex with men. We conducted focus groups with individuals in Haiti's Cité Soleil slum whose assigned gender at birth matched neither their gender identity nor contextual heteronormative constructions of gender roles, i.e. transwomen and transmen. The Yogyakarta Principles provided the study framework. Focus group participants offered emic perspectives on overall well-being, identities, biopsychosocial strengths and HIV-protective and risk factors. We found that gender expression that conflicts with contextual norms evoked recurring, humiliating and intentionally injurious sexual assaults against participants, heightening their HIV risk; participants endured beatings, shootings, stabbings, stonings and socio-political violence. Lack of confidentiality and stigma hinder participants' access to scarce HIV resources. Indistinct boundaries between sexuality, gender identity and gender expression merged with traditional gender-based roles to perpetuate sexual violence towards transwomen by cisgender heterosexual men and by transmen towards cisgender heterosexual women. Despite resignation to omnipresent violence, participants showed resilience regarding gender identity. Needed are integrated socio-behavioural and health programmes to challenge existing gender inequities while providing training on human rights and HIV risk reduction for Haitian sexual and gender minorities. SN - 1464-5351 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31318325/Experiences_of_sexual_and_gender_minorities_in_an_urban_enclave_of_Haiti:_despised,_beaten,_stoned,_stabbed,_shot_and_raped L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13691058.2019.1628305 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -