A PAMP-triggered MAPK cascade inhibits phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate production by PIP5K6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.New Phytol 2019NP
The phosphoinositide kinase PIP5K6 has recently been identified as a target for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MPK6. Phosphorylation of PIP5K6 inhibited the production of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), impacting membrane trafficking and cell expansion in pollen tubes. Here, we analyzed whether MPK6 regulated PIP5K6 in vegetative Arabidopsis cells in response to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22. Promoter-β-glucuronidase analyses and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data show PIP5K6 expressed throughout Arabidopsis tissues. Upon flg22 treatment of transgenic protoplasts, the PIP5K6 protein was phosphorylated, and this modification was reduced for a PIP5K6 variant lacking MPK6-targeted residues, or in protoplasts from mpk6 mutants. Upon flg22 treatment of Arabidopsis plants, phosphoinositide levels mildly decreased and a fluorescent reporter for PtdIns(4,5)P2 displayed reduced plasma membrane association, contrasting with phosphoinositide increases reported for abiotic stress responses. Flg22 treatment and chemical induction of the upstream MAPK kinase, MKK5, decreased phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in mesophyll protoplasts, indicating that the flg22-activated MAPK cascade limited PtdIns(4,5)P2 production. PIP5K6 expression or PIP5K6 protein abundance changed only marginally upon flg22 treatment, consistent with post-translational control of PIP5K6 activity. PtdIns(4,5)P2 -dependent endocytosis of FM 4-64, PIN2 and the NADPH-oxidase RbohD were reduced upon flg22 treatment or MKK5 induction. Reduced RbohD-endocytosis was correlated with enhanced ROS production. We conclude that MPK6-mediated phosphorylation of PIP5K6 limits the production of a functional PtdIns(4,5)P2 pool upon PAMP perception.