Epileptic Encephalopathy, Myoclonus-Dystonia, and Premature Pubarche in Siblings with a Novel C-Terminal Truncating Mutation in ATRX Gene.Neuropediatrics 2019; 50(5):327-331N
The X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by X-linked recessive mutations in ATRX gene, related to a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as alpha thalassemia, developmental delay, genital abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders. Patients with ATR-X syndrome can suffer from different types of epileptic seizures, but a severe epileptic encephalopathy pattern has not been described to date. We describe, for the first time, two brothers with genetically confirmed ATR-X syndrome who presented with drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathy, with tonic and polimorphic seizures reported in the elder brother and epileptic spasms in the younger brother. Moreover, both brothers showed a peculiar movement disorder with myoclonus-dystonia, worsened during periods of distress or pain. These cases expand the clinical spectrum of ATR-X syndrome and open new opportunities for the molecular diagnosis of ATRX mutations in male patients with severe epileptic encephalopathies and movement disorders.