New Jurassic mammaliaform sheds light on early evolution of mammal-like hyoid bones.Science 2019; 365(6450):276-279Sci
We report a new Jurassic docodontan mammaliaform found in China that is preserved with the hyoid bones. Its basihyal, ceratohyal, epihyal, and thyrohyal bones have mobile joints and are arranged in a saddle-shaped configuration, as in the mobile linkage of the hyoid apparatus of extant mammals. These are fundamentally different from the simple hyoid rods of nonmammaliaform cynodonts, which were likely associated with a wide, nonmuscularized throat, as seen in extant reptiles. The hyoid apparatus provides a framework for the larynx and for the constricted, muscularized esophagus, crucial for transport and powered swallowing of the masticated food and liquid in extant mammals. These derived structural components of hyoids evolved among early diverging mammaliaforms, before the disconnection of the middle ear from the mandible in crown mammals.