A review of the behavior of radioiodine in the subsurface at two DOE sites.Sci Total Environ 2019; 691:466-475ST
Multiple processes affect the fate of the radioactive isotope 129I in the environment. Primary categories of these processes include electron transfer reactions mediated by minerals and microbes, adsorption to sediments, interactions with organic matter, co-precipitation, and volatilization. A description of dominant biogeochemical processes is provided to describe the interrelationship of these processes and the associated iodine chemical species. The majority of the subsurface iodine fate and transport studies in the United States have been conducted at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites where radioisotopes of iodine are present in the environment and stored waste. The DOE Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS) are used to illustrate how the iodine species and dominant processes at a site are controlled by the prevailing site biogeochemical conditions. These sites differ in terms of climate (arid vs. sub-tropical), major geochemical parameters (e.g., pH ~7.5 vs. 4), and mineralogy (carbonate vs. Fe/Al oxide dominated). The iodine speciation and dominant processes at a site also have implications for selection and implementation of suitable remedy approaches for 129I.