Fetal and neonatal neurogenetics.Handb Clin Neurol 2019; 162:105-132HC
Disorders of the developing nervous system may be of genetic origin, comprising congenital malformations of spine and brain as well as metabolic or vascular disorders that affect normal brain development. Acquired causes include congenital infections, hypoxic-ischemic or traumatic brain injury, and a number of rare neoplasms. This chapter focuses on the clinical presentation and workup of neurogenetic disorders presenting in the fetal or neonatal period. After a summary of the most frequent clinical presentations, clues from history taking and clinical examination are illustrated with short case reports. This is followed by a discussion of the different tools available for the workup of neurogenetic disorders, including the various genetic techniques with their advantages and disadvantages. The implications of a molecular genetic diagnosis for the patient and family are addressed in the section on counseling. The chapter concludes with a proposed workflow that may help the clinician when confronted with a potential neurogenetic disorder in the fetal or neonatal period.