Life-threatening hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture of a uterine leiomyoma: A case report and review of the literature.Int J Surg Case Rep. 2019; 61:51-55.IJ
While uterine leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in females, resultant hemoperitoneum is an extremely rare and acute complication which requires emergent intervention and resuscitation. To date, less than one-hundred cases have been reported in the literature.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
We report a case of massive hemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of a 20 cm pedunculated leiomyoma in a 74-year-old female who presented as a trauma alert. Rapidly declining hemodynamic status with an ultrasound consistent with extensive hemoperitoneum led to activation of the massive transfusion protocol and an emergent laparotomy. In the operating theater the laparotomy revealed 4 L of blood. She underwent a myomectomy and subsequently, an angiogram and embolization of a bleeding uterine artery. In all, she required transfusion of 26 units of blood. Post operatively she was discharged home on hospital day 13.
Near fatal hemoperitoneum secondary to a uterine leiomyoma may be due to traumatic or spontaneous rupture of an overlying vein or artery. Leiomyomas greater than 10 cm in size have an increased risk of rupturing. A significant amount of blood can accumulate in the peritoneum resulting in hypovolemic shock.
Acute complications of uterine leiomyomas requiring surgical intervention are exceptionally rare. Candidates for the massive transfusion protocol must be appropriately and timely identified. Additionally, because surgery is a potential treatment for hemorrhage control in leiomyoma-related hemoperitoneum, surgeons should be aware of such complications.