Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: Early Diagnosis and Management.Cureus 2019; 11(5):e4679C
Spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome is a rare oncological emergency associated with multiorgan failure. It is characterized by an elevation of uric acid, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia and renal failure in the setting of no active chemotherapy as a result of lysis of massive tumor burden. Early recognition of the disease and prompt management would affect morbidity and mortality. We present the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian male with a history of recently diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had worsening fatigue, weakness and decreased appetite for three days. On admission, laboratory investigations were significant for elevated creatinine, uric acid, and phosphorous. He was started on hemodialysis and rasburicase in view of hyperuricemia. Subsequently, chemotherapy was started. He tolerated chemotherapy initially but later developed multiorgan failure. His family then opted for comfort measures and the patient passed away soon after. In conclusion, spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome is a common association with hematological cancers. Prophylaxis with allopurinol and rasburicase is recommended in all patients who are at an increased risk for tumor lysis syndrome.