Occlusion of arteriovenous malformations of the cavernous sinus via the superior ophthalmic vein.AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1988 May-Jun; 9(3):539-46.AA
The treatment of five patients with dural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the cavernous sinus via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is reported. The procedure was performed by transcutaneous puncture of the SOV under the guidance of real-time digital subtraction angiography. Complete resolution of the ocular symptoms was achieved in all cases. Angiograms after embolization showed complete obliteration of the malformation in four cases and partial obliteration in one. This method can cure dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus, with preservation of blood flow in the internal carotid artery. It is particularly indicated when the SOV is enlarged and when (1) dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus are fed by small branches of the internal carotid artery or direct carotid cavernous fistulas with small tears; (2) dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus are fed by multiple branches from both the internal and external carotid arteries, one or both sides; or (3) dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus or direct carotid cavernous fistulas recur after trapping of the internal carotid artery. Transcutaneous puncture and catheterization of the SOV was performed safely with the aid of digital subtraction angiography. The SOV approach was able to treat the fistula with preservation of the internal carotid artery.