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Fatty Acid Profile and Cardiometabolic Markers in Relation with Diet Type and Omega-3 Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians.
Nutrients. 2019 Jul 20; 11(7)N

Abstract

Plant-based diets are becoming increasingly popular, and scientific information concerning the nutritional status in this population is needed. This study determined the fatty acid profile of Spanish lacto-ovo vegetarians (LO-vegetarians) and vegans. Participants were 104 healthy adults, LO-vegetarians (n = 49) and vegans (n = 55). Lifestyle habits and consumption of food and omega-3 supplements were estimated by questionnaires. BMI, blood pressure, and abdominal and body fat were determined. Serum was collected to analyze fatty acids, glucose, lipids, homocysteine, insulin, and leptin. Volunteers were classified according to serum omega-6 to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) ratio into three groups: n-6/n-3 < 10, n-6/n-3 ≥ 10 to 20, and n-6/n-3 > 20. Results showed low cardiovascular risk and high insulin sensitivity with negligible differences between diet types. Linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) was the major serum fatty acid, followed by oleic (C18:1n-9) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. In contrast, serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were (median, interquartile range) 0.27, 0.18% and 1.59, and 0.93%, respectively. Users of n-3 supplements (<10% of total vegetarians) had significantly higher EPA than non-users, while frequent consumption of flax-seeds was associated with increased α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). However, neither n-3 supplementation nor food consumption affected DHA levels in this vegetarian population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain.Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain. mpvaquero@ictan.csic.es.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31330792

Citation

Salvador, Ana M., et al. "Fatty Acid Profile and Cardiometabolic Markers in Relation With Diet Type and Omega-3 Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians." Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 7, 2019.
Salvador AM, García-Maldonado E, Gallego-Narbón A, et al. Fatty Acid Profile and Cardiometabolic Markers in Relation with Diet Type and Omega-3 Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians. Nutrients. 2019;11(7).
Salvador, A. M., García-Maldonado, E., Gallego-Narbón, A., Zapatera, B., & Vaquero, M. P. (2019). Fatty Acid Profile and Cardiometabolic Markers in Relation with Diet Type and Omega-3 Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians. Nutrients, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071659
Salvador AM, et al. Fatty Acid Profile and Cardiometabolic Markers in Relation With Diet Type and Omega-3 Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians. Nutrients. 2019 Jul 20;11(7) PubMed PMID: 31330792.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fatty Acid Profile and Cardiometabolic Markers in Relation with Diet Type and Omega-3 Supplementation in Spanish Vegetarians. AU - Salvador,Ana M, AU - García-Maldonado,Elena, AU - Gallego-Narbón,Angélica, AU - Zapatera,Belén, AU - Vaquero,M Pilar, Y1 - 2019/07/20/ PY - 2019/07/03/received PY - 2019/07/17/revised PY - 2019/07/18/accepted PY - 2019/7/24/entrez PY - 2019/7/25/pubmed PY - 2020/1/17/medline KW - alpha-linolenic acid KW - cardiometabolic markers KW - docosahexaenoic acid KW - homocysteine KW - n-6/n-3 ratio KW - oleic acid KW - omega-3 fatty acids KW - supplementation KW - vegan KW - vegetarian JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 11 IS - 7 N2 - Plant-based diets are becoming increasingly popular, and scientific information concerning the nutritional status in this population is needed. This study determined the fatty acid profile of Spanish lacto-ovo vegetarians (LO-vegetarians) and vegans. Participants were 104 healthy adults, LO-vegetarians (n = 49) and vegans (n = 55). Lifestyle habits and consumption of food and omega-3 supplements were estimated by questionnaires. BMI, blood pressure, and abdominal and body fat were determined. Serum was collected to analyze fatty acids, glucose, lipids, homocysteine, insulin, and leptin. Volunteers were classified according to serum omega-6 to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) ratio into three groups: n-6/n-3 < 10, n-6/n-3 ≥ 10 to 20, and n-6/n-3 > 20. Results showed low cardiovascular risk and high insulin sensitivity with negligible differences between diet types. Linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) was the major serum fatty acid, followed by oleic (C18:1n-9) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. In contrast, serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were (median, interquartile range) 0.27, 0.18% and 1.59, and 0.93%, respectively. Users of n-3 supplements (<10% of total vegetarians) had significantly higher EPA than non-users, while frequent consumption of flax-seeds was associated with increased α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3). However, neither n-3 supplementation nor food consumption affected DHA levels in this vegetarian population. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31330792/Fatty_Acid_Profile_and_Cardiometabolic_Markers_in_Relation_with_Diet_Type_and_Omega_3_Supplementation_in_Spanish_Vegetarians_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu11071659 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -