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A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Africa.
BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 22; 19(1):651.BI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is a vaccine preventable disease. In Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), poor hygiene and sanitation conditions are the main risk factors contributing to HAV infection. There have been, however, notable improvements in hygiene and sanitation conditions in many LMICs. As a result, there are studies showing a possible transition of some LMICs from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries should routinely collect, analyse and review local factors (including disease burden) to guide the development of hepatitis A vaccination programs. Up-to-date information on hepatitis A burden is, therefore, critical in aiding the development of country-specific recommendations on hepatitis A vaccination.

METHODS

We conducted a systematic review to present an up-to-date, comprehensive synthesis of hepatitis A epidemiological data in Africa.

RESULTS

The main results of this review include: 1) the reported HAV seroprevalence data suggests that Africa, as a whole, should not be considered as a high HAV endemic region; 2) the IgM anti-HAV seroprevalence data showed similar risk of acute hepatitis A infection among all age-groups; 3) South Africa could be experiencing a possible transition from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The results of this review should be interpreted with caution as the reported data represents research work with significant sociocultural, economic and environmental diversity from 13 out of 54 African countries.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings show that priority should be given to collecting HAV seroprevalence data and re-assessing the current hepatitis A control strategies in Africa to prevent future disease outbreaks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Vaccines for Africa Initiative, University of Cape Town, Room N2.09A, Werner Beit North, Health Sciences Campus, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa. pttjen005@myuct.ac.za. School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. pttjen005@myuct.ac.za.Save the Children International, Somaliland Country Office, Nairobi, Kenya.Vaccines for Africa Initiative, University of Cape Town, Room N2.09A, Werner Beit North, Health Sciences Campus, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa. Division of Medical Microbiology & Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.Vaccines for Africa Initiative, University of Cape Town, Room N2.09A, Werner Beit North, Health Sciences Campus, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa. Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Groote Schuur Hospital, The University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.Vaccines for Africa Initiative, University of Cape Town, Room N2.09A, Werner Beit North, Health Sciences Campus, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa. School of Public Health & Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31331281

Citation

Patterson, Jenna, et al. "A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Hepatitis a in Africa." BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 19, no. 1, 2019, p. 651.
Patterson J, Abdullahi L, Hussey GD, et al. A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19(1):651.
Patterson, J., Abdullahi, L., Hussey, G. D., Muloiwa, R., & Kagina, B. M. (2019). A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(1), 651. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4235-5
Patterson J, et al. A Systematic Review of the Epidemiology of Hepatitis a in Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 22;19(1):651. PubMed PMID: 31331281.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis A in Africa. AU - Patterson,Jenna, AU - Abdullahi,Leila, AU - Hussey,Gregory D, AU - Muloiwa,Rudzani, AU - Kagina,Benjamin M, Y1 - 2019/07/22/ PY - 2019/02/12/received PY - 2019/06/30/accepted PY - 2019/7/24/entrez PY - 2019/7/25/pubmed PY - 2019/10/3/medline KW - Africa KW - Epidemiology KW - Hepatitis a virus KW - Meta-analysis KW - Seroprevalence KW - Systematic review SP - 651 EP - 651 JF - BMC infectious diseases JO - BMC Infect. Dis. VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A, caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), is a vaccine preventable disease. In Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), poor hygiene and sanitation conditions are the main risk factors contributing to HAV infection. There have been, however, notable improvements in hygiene and sanitation conditions in many LMICs. As a result, there are studies showing a possible transition of some LMICs from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries should routinely collect, analyse and review local factors (including disease burden) to guide the development of hepatitis A vaccination programs. Up-to-date information on hepatitis A burden is, therefore, critical in aiding the development of country-specific recommendations on hepatitis A vaccination. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to present an up-to-date, comprehensive synthesis of hepatitis A epidemiological data in Africa. RESULTS: The main results of this review include: 1) the reported HAV seroprevalence data suggests that Africa, as a whole, should not be considered as a high HAV endemic region; 2) the IgM anti-HAV seroprevalence data showed similar risk of acute hepatitis A infection among all age-groups; 3) South Africa could be experiencing a possible transition from high to intermediate HAV endemicity. The results of this review should be interpreted with caution as the reported data represents research work with significant sociocultural, economic and environmental diversity from 13 out of 54 African countries. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that priority should be given to collecting HAV seroprevalence data and re-assessing the current hepatitis A control strategies in Africa to prevent future disease outbreaks. SN - 1471-2334 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31331281/A_systematic_review_of_the_epidemiology_of_hepatitis_A_in_Africa_ L2 - https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-019-4235-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -