Repair Effects of KGF on Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Flap Injury via Activating Nrf2 Signaling.J Surg Res 2019; 244:547-557JS
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a main cause to and the mechanism of necrosis after flap transplantation. Researches were hardly conducted on the role and possible mechanism of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in association with IR flap injury.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A CoCl2-stimulated hypoxia cell model was established to investigate the effects of KGF on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, and reactive oxygen species level. The experiments were performed by cell counting kit-8 and flow cytometry as required. Meanwhile, the expressions of cell cycle-related and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling-related genes were determined using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. The right dorsolateral areas of Institute of Cancer Research mice were marked as flaps, the pedicle of which formed an IR process through clamping and loosening. Tissue morphologies were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining 24 h after the surgery. The effects of KGF on cell apoptosis and associated genes expressions were studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot.
HaCAT cells treated with 40 μM CoCl2 could not only reduce cell viability, promote cell apoptosis, arrest G1 phase of cell cycle and increase the activity of reactive oxygen species but also downregulate the expressions of c-myc, c-fos, transforming growth factor-α, Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1, and gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase. Additional recombinant human KGF, on one hand, could protect the cells from hypoxia injury. On the other hand, recombinant human KGF could significantly inhibit cell apoptosis, increase KGF activity, and increase the Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1, and gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase proteins levels in IR flap tissues.
KGF played an important role in protecting mice flaps from IR injury, and the possible mechanism was involved in activating the Nrf2 signaling.