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Tics and Tourette Syndrome.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2019; 25(4):936-958C

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

The purpose of this article is to present current information on the phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidities, and pathophysiology of tic disorders and discuss therapy options. It is hoped that a greater understanding of each of these components will provide clinicians with the necessary information to deliver thoughtful and optimal care to affected individuals.

RECENT FINDINGS

Recent advances include the finding that Tourette syndrome is likely due to a combination of several different genes, both low-effect and larger-effect variants, plus environmental factors. Pathophysiologically, increasing evidence supports involvement of the cortical-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; however, the primary location and neurotransmitter remain controversial. Behavioral therapy is first-line treatment, and pharmacotherapy is based on tic severity. Several newer therapeutic agents are under investigation (eg, valbenazine, deutetrabenazine, cannabinoids), and deep brain stimulation is a promising therapy.

SUMMARY

Tics, defined as sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor movements or vocalizations, are essential components of Tourette syndrome. Although some tics may be mild, others can cause significant psychosocial, physical, and functional difficulties that affect daily activities. In addition to tics, most affected individuals have coexisting neuropsychological difficulties (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, mood disorder, disruptive behaviors, schizotypal traits, suicidal behavior, personality disorder, antisocial activities, and sleep disorders) that can further impact social and academic activities or employment.

Authors

No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31356288

Citation

Singer, Harvey S.. "Tics and Tourette Syndrome." Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.), vol. 25, no. 4, 2019, pp. 936-958.
Singer HS. Tics and Tourette Syndrome. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2019;25(4):936-958.
Singer, H. S. (2019). Tics and Tourette Syndrome. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.), 25(4), pp. 936-958. doi:10.1212/CON.0000000000000752.
Singer HS. Tics and Tourette Syndrome. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2019;25(4):936-958. PubMed PMID: 31356288.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tics and Tourette Syndrome. A1 - Singer,Harvey S, PY - 2019/7/30/entrez PY - 2019/7/30/pubmed PY - 2019/7/30/medline SP - 936 EP - 958 JF - Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.) JO - Continuum (Minneap Minn) VL - 25 IS - 4 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to present current information on the phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidities, and pathophysiology of tic disorders and discuss therapy options. It is hoped that a greater understanding of each of these components will provide clinicians with the necessary information to deliver thoughtful and optimal care to affected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances include the finding that Tourette syndrome is likely due to a combination of several different genes, both low-effect and larger-effect variants, plus environmental factors. Pathophysiologically, increasing evidence supports involvement of the cortical-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit; however, the primary location and neurotransmitter remain controversial. Behavioral therapy is first-line treatment, and pharmacotherapy is based on tic severity. Several newer therapeutic agents are under investigation (eg, valbenazine, deutetrabenazine, cannabinoids), and deep brain stimulation is a promising therapy. SUMMARY: Tics, defined as sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor movements or vocalizations, are essential components of Tourette syndrome. Although some tics may be mild, others can cause significant psychosocial, physical, and functional difficulties that affect daily activities. In addition to tics, most affected individuals have coexisting neuropsychological difficulties (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, mood disorder, disruptive behaviors, schizotypal traits, suicidal behavior, personality disorder, antisocial activities, and sleep disorders) that can further impact social and academic activities or employment. SN - 1538-6899 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31356288/Tics_and_Tourette_Syndrome L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CON.0000000000000752 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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