Sex and Height Influence Neck Posture When Using Electronic Handheld Devices.Clin Anat. 2019 Nov; 32(8):1061-1071.CA
With increased tablet ownership in the United States comes increased levels of neck flexion compared to desktop or laptop computer use, and these neck postures have been linked to increases in neck pain. Importantly, tablet viewing postures can be achieved in multiple ways and could be determined by the morphology of the individual and/or other extraneous factors. In this study, we aim to preliminarily evaluate how neck postures vary during tablet use among individuals and link this variation to other factors such as sex, height, weight, presence/absence of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD), and morphology of the head and neck. We analyzed two-dimensional landmarks placed on lateral-view radiographs of 22 participants (10 female and 12 male) seated in neutral, upright, fully flexed, semi-reclined, and reclined postures. We utilize geometric morphometric techniques, which are advantageous for evaluating shape variation and have not been extensively applied to biomechanical analyses. We found skeletal morphology to be significantly related to sex and height in all but the neutral posture (P < 0.05), and weight was marginally significantly related to shape in the semi-reclined posture (P = 0.047). Morphologically, male participants exhibited more flexion at the articulatio atlantooccipitalis than females, and females showed greater mandibular protrusion than males, although this result is likely related to height. No relationship was found between posture and TMD. This research establishes a framework for future work that uses geometric morphometric analyses to evaluate how neck postures vary in relation to TMD. Clin. Anat. 32:1061-1071, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.