Nutrient Patterns, Cognitive Function, and Decline in Older Persons: Results from the Three-City and NuAge Studies.Nutrients. 2019 Aug 05; 11(8)N
Dietary patterns, or the combination of foods and beverages intake, have been associated with better cognitive function in older persons. To date, no study has investigated the link between a posteriori nutrient patterns based on food intake, and cognitive decline in longitudinal analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nutrient patterns and cognitive function and decline in two longitudinal cohorts of older persons from France and Canada. The study sample was composed of participants from the Three-City study (3C, France) and the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada). Both studies estimated nutritional intakes at baseline, and carried out repeated measures of global cognitive function for 1,388 and 1,439 individuals, respectively. Nutrient patterns were determined using principal component analysis methodology in the two samples, and their relation with cognitive function and decline was estimated using linear mixed models. In 3C, a healthy nutrient pattern, characterized by higher intakes of plant-based foods, was associated with a higher global cognitive function at baseline, as opposed to a Western nutrient pattern, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. In NuAge, we also found a healthy nutrient pattern and a Western pattern, although no association was observed with either of these patterns in the Canadian cohort. No association between any of the nutrient patterns and cognitive decline was observed in either cohort. There is a need for longitudinal cohorts focusing on nutrient patterns with substantial follow-up, in order to evaluate more accurately associations between nutrition and cognition in older persons.