Street dust heavy metal pollution implication on human health in Nicosia, North Cyprus.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Oct; 26(28):28993-29002.ES
The consequence of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks of the heavy metal concentrations in street dust of North Cyprus is yet to be reported. This study is aimed at investigating the concentration of six different heavy metals' concentration explicitly: As, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Pb, along leading highways in Nicosia. The result obtained was analyzed using an X-ray fluorescent machine. Multivariate and statistical methods were applied for the data analysis using xlstat MS-excel; furthermore, index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) and human health risk assessment using exposure pathways as defined by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) pollution mode were also used for level assessment and health risk implications. The average (M ± SD) concentrations of the metals in the dust are as follows: As (17.48 ± 1.53 mg/kg), Cu (51.86 ± 8.60 mg/kg), Cr (321.14 ± 8.20 mg/kg), Pb (35.62 ± 8.54 mg/kg), Ni (64.79 ± 8.72 mg/kg), and Zn (136.13 ± 30.85 mg/kg). Variation coefficient, Vc, and principle component analysis (PCA) suggested that As, Cr, Ni, and Pb have same source of pollution emission from both natural and anthropogenic activities, Zn from traffic emission while Cu from natural source. However, the result was compared with other nearby towns bordering North Cyprus; all the metal shows similar pattern of pollution with the exception of Cr which is 5 and 11 times higher than street dust of Amman (Jordan) and Tokat (Turkey), respectively. Additionally, Igeo result has the following decreasing order: Zn > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > As and also revealed that the As, Cu, and Ni have originated from natural source. Cr has mix source: one from traffic and the other one from atmospheric deposition. Also, Pb is emitted from industrial pollution, whereas 80% of Zn are from traffic-related emissions. The non-carcinogenic health risk (hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI)) follows the order Cr > As>Ni > Pb > Zn > Cu for children and adults. It is found that the HI of As, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn is less one; hence, the street dust does not exhibit non-carcinogenic health risk. But that of Cr content is greater than one, with HI values of Cr 1.44E+02 and 1.55E+01 for children and adults, respectively. The result for carcinogenic health risk (total cancer risk (TCR)) has the following order: Pb (1.42E-05) > Cr (4.81E-09) > (Ni 1.35E-09) > As (1.96E-10). With all the values less than threshed hole limit of TCR ≥ 10-4, street dust does not possess carcinogenic health risk for the entire values of six heavy metals considered in this work.