Fabrication, Flow Control, and Applications of Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices.Molecules 2019; 24(16)M
Paper-based microfluidic devices have advanced significantly in recent years as they are affordable, automated with capillary action, portable, and biodegradable diagnostic platforms for a variety of health, environmental, and food quality applications. In terms of commercialization, however, paper-based microfluidics still have to overcome significant challenges to become an authentic point-of-care testing format with the advanced capabilities of analyte purification, multiplex analysis, quantification, and detection with high sensitivity and selectivity. Moreover, fluid flow manipulation for multistep integration, which involves valving and flow velocity control, is also a critical parameter to achieve high-performance devices. Considering these limitations, the aim of this review is to (i) comprehensively analyze the fabrication techniques of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, (ii) provide a theoretical background and various methods for fluid flow manipulation, and iii) highlight the recent detection techniques developed for various applications, including their advantages and disadvantages.