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Re-examination of 1- vs. 3-Sets of Resistance Exercise for Pre-spaceflight Muscle Conditioning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Front Physiol. 2019; 10:864.FP

Abstract

Background:

Recommendations on resistance training (RT) set-volume protocols in preparation for spaceflight muscular strength conditioning remains equivocal. A meta-analysis was performed on the effects of single-set (S), or three-set (M3) RT on muscular strength per exercise for different body segments and joint types (multi-joint and single-joint).

Methods:

Computerized searches were performed on PubMed, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus™. Twelve studies were considered appropriate according to pre-set eligibility criteria. Outcomes analyzed were pre-to-post-muscular strength change on; multi-joint and single-joint combined; upper body only; lower body only; multi-joint exercises only; single-joint exercises only.

Results:

Upper body exercise analysis on combined subjects and untrained subjects only reported greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.37; 95% CI 0.09-0.82; P = 0.11 and ES 0.35; 95% CI-0.49 to 1.19; P = 0.42). Trained only subjects reported superior strength gains with M3 (ES 0.63; 95% CI 0.34-0.92; P = <0.0001). Lower body exercise on combined subjects and untrained subjects only reported superior strength gains with M3 (ES 0.35; 95% CI 0.10-0.60; P = 0.006 and ES 0.49; 95% CI 0.14-0.83; P = 0.005). Trained subjects only observed greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.18; 95% CI -0.23 to 0.58; P = 0.39). Multi-joint exercise on combined subjects reported greater strength gains with M3 (ES 0.83; 95% CI 0.14-1.51; P = 0.02). Trained only subjects reported greater strength gains with M3 (ES 0.52; 95% CI 0.10-0.94; P = 0.02). Single-joint exercise on combined subjects and untrained only observed greater strength gains for M3 (ES 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.72; P = <0.0001 and ES 0.56; 95% CI 0.21-0.91; P = 0.002). Trained only subjects reported greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.37; 95% CI -0.01 to 0.75; P = 0.06).

Conclusion:

For astronauts in space-flight preparation, the findings suggest that M3 training appears to be preferable over S for developing muscular strength. Nevertheless, depending on the physical conditioning of the crew member or tight pre-flight scheduling, S is still able to provide a positive strength training stimulus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Applied Physiology Research Laboratory, School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland.Kilgore Academy, Azle, TX, United States.Department of Athletic Training and Exercise Physiology, Midwestern State University, Wichita Falls, TX, United States.Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaPSCo, Physiological and Psychosocial Stress, University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Preventive and Occupational Medicine, WittyFit, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Faculty of Health, School of Exercise Science, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.Space Medicine Team, European Astronaut Centre (EAC), European Space Agency, Cologne, Germany. KBR, Cologne, Germany.Applied Physiology Research Laboratory, School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland.Applied Physiology Research Laboratory, School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland.

Pub Type(s)

Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31396092

Citation

Ralston, Grant W., et al. "Re-examination of 1- Vs. 3-Sets of Resistance Exercise for Pre-spaceflight Muscle Conditioning: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 10, 2019, p. 864.
Ralston GW, Kilgore L, Wyatt FB, et al. Re-examination of 1- vs. 3-Sets of Resistance Exercise for Pre-spaceflight Muscle Conditioning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Physiol. 2019;10:864.
Ralston, G. W., Kilgore, L., Wyatt, F. B., Dutheil, F., Jaekel, P., Buchan, D. S., & Baker, J. S. (2019). Re-examination of 1- vs. 3-Sets of Resistance Exercise for Pre-spaceflight Muscle Conditioning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 864. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00864
Ralston GW, et al. Re-examination of 1- Vs. 3-Sets of Resistance Exercise for Pre-spaceflight Muscle Conditioning: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Physiol. 2019;10:864. PubMed PMID: 31396092.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Re-examination of 1- vs. 3-Sets of Resistance Exercise for Pre-spaceflight Muscle Conditioning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. AU - Ralston,Grant W, AU - Kilgore,Lon, AU - Wyatt,Frank B, AU - Dutheil,Frédéric, AU - Jaekel,Patrick, AU - Buchan,Duncan S, AU - Baker,Julien S, Y1 - 2019/07/24/ PY - 2019/01/30/received PY - 2019/06/20/accepted PY - 2019/8/10/entrez PY - 2019/8/10/pubmed PY - 2019/8/10/medline KW - one vs.multiple-sets and muscular strength KW - one vs.three-sets and muscular strength KW - resistance training and muscular strength KW - resistance training and training volume KW - single vs.multiple-sets SP - 864 EP - 864 JF - Frontiers in physiology JO - Front Physiol VL - 10 N2 - Background: Recommendations on resistance training (RT) set-volume protocols in preparation for spaceflight muscular strength conditioning remains equivocal. A meta-analysis was performed on the effects of single-set (S), or three-set (M3) RT on muscular strength per exercise for different body segments and joint types (multi-joint and single-joint). Methods: Computerized searches were performed on PubMed, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus™. Twelve studies were considered appropriate according to pre-set eligibility criteria. Outcomes analyzed were pre-to-post-muscular strength change on; multi-joint and single-joint combined; upper body only; lower body only; multi-joint exercises only; single-joint exercises only. Results: Upper body exercise analysis on combined subjects and untrained subjects only reported greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.37; 95% CI 0.09-0.82; P = 0.11 and ES 0.35; 95% CI-0.49 to 1.19; P = 0.42). Trained only subjects reported superior strength gains with M3 (ES 0.63; 95% CI 0.34-0.92; P = <0.0001). Lower body exercise on combined subjects and untrained subjects only reported superior strength gains with M3 (ES 0.35; 95% CI 0.10-0.60; P = 0.006 and ES 0.49; 95% CI 0.14-0.83; P = 0.005). Trained subjects only observed greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.18; 95% CI -0.23 to 0.58; P = 0.39). Multi-joint exercise on combined subjects reported greater strength gains with M3 (ES 0.83; 95% CI 0.14-1.51; P = 0.02). Trained only subjects reported greater strength gains with M3 (ES 0.52; 95% CI 0.10-0.94; P = 0.02). Single-joint exercise on combined subjects and untrained only observed greater strength gains for M3 (ES 0.49; 95% CI 0.26-0.72; P = <0.0001 and ES 0.56; 95% CI 0.21-0.91; P = 0.002). Trained only subjects reported greater but not significant strength gains with M3 (ES 0.37; 95% CI -0.01 to 0.75; P = 0.06). Conclusion: For astronauts in space-flight preparation, the findings suggest that M3 training appears to be preferable over S for developing muscular strength. Nevertheless, depending on the physical conditioning of the crew member or tight pre-flight scheduling, S is still able to provide a positive strength training stimulus. SN - 1664-042X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31396092/Re_examination_of_1__vs__3_Sets_of_Resistance_Exercise_for_Pre_spaceflight_Muscle_Conditioning:_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00864 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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